School Work

A Survey of Tibetan History

Description
History
Categories
Published
of 42
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  A Survey of Tibetan History  Table of Contents  1 The Empire of the Early Kings of Tibet..............................................................................1 The Early Yarlung Kings.................................................................................................1Emperor Songtsen-gampo...............................................................................................2Emperor Mangsong-mangtsen.........................................................................................3Emperor Tri Dusong-mangjey.........................................................................................4Emperor Mey-agtsom......................................................................................................4Emperor Tri Songdetsen..................................................................................................5The Samyay Debate.........................................................................................................7Emperors Muney-tsenpo and Saynaleg...........................................................................8Emperor Relpachen.........................................................................................................9  2 The Struggle for Religious Survival after the Fall of the Tibetan Empire.....................11 The Fragmentation of Tibet after Langdarma's Assassination......................................11Revival of the Monk Ordination Lineage......................................................................12Start of the Later Flourishing of the Teachings.............................................................12Atisha's Visit to Tibet....................................................................................................13Establishment of New Monasteries and the Development of Tibetan Buddhism and Bon into Various Schools......................................................................................14Pre-Atisha................................................................................................................15Kadam......................................................................................................................15Sakya.......................................................................................................................15Bon..........................................................................................................................15Nyingma..................................................................................................................16Kagyu.......................................................................................................................16  3 Tibetan Lamas and Mongol Patrons.................................................................................18 Chinggis Khan...............................................................................................................18Invitation of Sakya Pandita to Mongolia by Godan Khan.............................................19Establishment of a Lama-Patron Relationship between Khubilai Khan and Pagpa......20Debates between Buddhism and Other Religions.........................................................21Establishment of Mongol Overlordship of Tibet...........................................................22Drigung Rebellion against the Sakyas...........................................................................23The Decline of Mongol Power......................................................................................24Establishment of the Pagmodru Hegemony..................................................................24  4 The Pagmodru, Rinpung, and Tsangpa Hegemonies.......................................................26 The Establishment of the Pagmodru Hegemony...........................................................26The Ming Dynasty's Claim of Being the Heir of the Mongol Rule of Tibet.................27Comparison with Ming China's Relations with the Mongols, Monguors, and the Uriyangkhai, and the Jurchen.......................................................................................28The Mongols............................................................................................................28The Monguors..........................................................................................................29The Uriyangkhai......................................................................................................30The Jurchens............................................................................................................30The Hongwu Emperor and Founding of the Ming Dynasty..........................................30The Yongle Emperor and the Fifth Karmapa................................................................31Analysis of the Ming Emperors' Invitations of Tibetan Lamas.....................................32The Yongle Emperor and Tsongkhapa..........................................................................32The Rise of the Rinpung Family...................................................................................33 A Survey of Tibetan Historyi  Table of Contents  4 The Pagmodru, Rinpung, and Tsangpa Hegemonies The Oirat Mongol Empire and Its Trade with Ming China...........................................34The Minyag Kingdom in Kham and Its Trade with Ming China..................................34The Oirat Defeat of Ming China and Its Effect on Chinese Relations with Tibet........35The Fourth Zhamarpa and the Rinpung Incursion into U.............................................35Dayan Khan and the Preoccupation of Ming China with the Mongol Threat to the North.............................................................................................................................36The Zhengde Emperor's Overtures to the Eighth Karmapa...........................................37The Migration of Mongol Tribes to Amdo and the Establishment of the Tsangpa Hegemony.....................................................................................................................37 Links.........................................................................................................................................39 A Survey of Tibetan Historyii  1 The Empire of the Early Kings of Tibet [Chapters renumbered and content amended and supplemented, in violet between squarebrackets, with reference to, among other sources, the expanded Tibetan work: Zhva-skab-padBang-phyug bde-ldan,  Bod-kyi srid-don rgyal-rabs , 2 vols. Kalimpong, India: ShakabpaHouse, 1976.] The Early Yarlung Kings According to the traditional account, the first king of the Yarlung Dynasty ( Yar-klungs ) inCentral Tibet came there from the central North Indian kingdom of Magadha. He was calledNyatri Tsenpo ( gNya'-khri btsan-po ) and it was thought that he descended from the sky. [TheTibetan calendar starts its count of Tibetan royal years ( bod rgyal-lo ) from this date, 127BCE.] He and the next six kings were said to have returned to the sky by a sky-rope at theirdeaths, since they were not buried in tombs. From the time of the eighth Yarlung king,Drigum Tsenpo ( Gri-gum btsan-po ), however, there are tombs and so, in a sense, Tibetanhistory begins here.Drigum Tsenpo's successor, Chatri Tsenpo (  Bya-khri btsan-po ), also called Pudekungyel( Pu-de kun-rgyal  or  Pu-de gung-rgyal ), the ninth in this line of kings, was a contemporary of the Han Emperor of China, Han Wudi (140 - 85 BCE). Pudekungyel brought much materialprogress to Tibet. He is famous for having commissioned the building of canals and bridges.Under him, iron and copper ore were discovered in Tibet.Eighteen generations of kings later, the twenty-eighth Yarlung king, Lhatotori Nyentsen(  Lha-tho-tho-ri gNyan-btsan ) (b. 173 CE) received [a basket of] Buddhist scriptures fromIndia, written in Sanskrit. It was known as The Tough Mystery ( gNyen-po gsang-ba ),[According to other traditional sources, a basket fell from the sky. In it, was a Sanskrit sutra,called  Sutra on the Array Like a Woven Basket   (  Za-ma-tog bkod-pa'i mdo , Skt.  KarandavyuhaSutra ), concerning the altruistic deeds of the Buddha-figure of compassion, Avalokiteshvara.The basket also contained the six-syllable mantra of Avalokiteshvara,  The Sutra of the Seal for  Ridding and Restoring  ( Spang-skong phyag-rgya-pa'i mdo ) concerning methods for taminghalf-human half-serpent  nagas , and a golden reliquary  stupa . The Tough Mystery refers toall four objects in the basket.] This occurred in 233 CE. To commemorate this importantevent, Tibetan currency notes are dated according to the number of years that have passedsince then.Some say that the Sanskrit texts were received from Litisi (  Li-thi-si ) and the Tochariantranslator Buddhirakshita ( Tho-gar-gyi Lo-tsa-ba Blo-sems 'tsho ), who predicted that theTibetans would be able to read them four generations later. [Tocharia ( Tho-gar  ) was aBuddhist kingdom on the Silk Route, centered in Kucha and Turfan, along the northern rim of the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang Province of China, north of Tibet. The Tocharianswere an Indo-European people, who came to this area srcinally from the Roman Empire,received Buddhism from India, and were instrumental in the translation of its texts intoChinese and Old Turk.]Supposedly, then, Tri Desongtsen ( Khri lde-srong-btsan ), more widely known asSongtsen-gampo ( Srong-btsan sgam-po ), the thirty-second Yarlung king, ascended the throneonly four generations after Lhatotori Nyentsen. Songtsen-gampo, however, was born in 617,which implies enormously long life spans for the three intervening kings. [Thus, various other  1 The Empire of the Early Kings of Tibet1
Search
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks