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A View to the Future: Ultraviolet Studies of the Solar System

A View to the Future: Ultraviolet Studies of the Solar System
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  FUNDAMENTALQUESTIONSINASTROPHYSICS:GUIDELINESFORFUTUREUVOBSERVATORIES  Edited by: ANA I. G´OMEZ DE CASTRO and WILLEM WAMSTEKERReprinted from Astrophysics and Space Science Volume 303, Nos. 1–4, 2006  Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is availableISBN 1-4020-4838-6 (hardbook)ISBN 1-4020-4839-4 (eBook)ISBN 978-1-4020-4838-6 (hardbook)ISBN 978-1-4020-4839-4 (eBook)Published by Springer,P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Picture left  : inserted as tribute to the late Willem Wamsteker who liked this image very much Pictures right  : Top : Galaxy halo if the Universe reionized at redshift 15 or 6, by Kenji Bekki & Masashi Chiba, Tohuku University, Japan  Below : Sonic Point model of KiloHertz QPOs, by M. Colleman, F.K. Lamb & D. Psaltis  Below : Simulations of accretion disks, by J.F. Hawley, S.A. Balbus, J.M. Stone  Below : Simulations of the interaction of the accretion disk and the magnetized star in a T Tauri System, by Brigitta vonRekowsky & Axel Branderger  Bottom : Artist illustration of the evaporation of an exoplanet atmosphere, by European Space Agency and AlfredVidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris) Printed on acid-free paper  All Rights Reservedc  Springer 2006No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form orby any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storageand retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.Printed in the Netherlands  TABLE OF CONTENTSForeword 1–2M.A. Barstow and K. Werner / Structure and Evolution of White Dwarfs and their Interaction with the LocalInterstellar Medium 3–16Isabella Pagano, Thomas R. Ayres, Alessandro C. Lanzafame, Jeffrey L. Linsky, Benjam´ın Montesinos andMarcello Rodon`o / Key Problems in Cool-Star Astrophysics 17–31Ana I. G´omez de Castro, Alain Lecavelier, Miguel D’Avillez, Jeffrey L. Linsky and Jos´e Cernicharo / UVCapabilities to Probe the Formation of Planetary Systems: From the ISM to Planets 33–52Boris T. G¨aansicke, Domitilla de Martino, Thomas R. Marsh, Carole A. Haswell, Christian Knigge, Knox S.Long and Steven N. Shore / Ultraviolet Studies of Interacting Binaries 53–68Willem Wamsteker, Jason X. Prochaska, Luciana Bianchi, Dieter Reimers, Nino Panagia, Andrew C. Fabian,Claes Fransson, Boris M. Shustov, Patrick Petitjean, Phillipp Richter and Eduardo Battaner / The Needfor Ultraviolet to Understand the Chemical Evolution of the Universe, and Cosmology 69–84Rosa M. Gonz´alez Delgado / Starbursts at Space Ultraviolet Wavelengths 85–102NoahBrosch,JohnDavies,MichelC.FestouandJean-ClaudeG´erard/AViewtotheFuture:UltravioletStudiesof the Solar System 103–122Wolfram Kollatschny and Wang Ting-Gui / Active Galaxies in the UV 123–132Ana I. G´omez de Castro, Willem Wamsteker, Martin Barstow, Noah Brosch, Norbert Kappelmann, WolframKollatschny, Domitilla de Martino, Isabella Pagano, Alain Lecavelier des´Etangs, David Ehenreich,Dieter Reimers, Rosa Gonz´alez Delgado, Francisco Najarro and Jeff Linsky / Fundamental Problems inAstrophysics 133–145Norbert Kappelmann and J¨urgen Barnstedt / Guidelines for Future UV Observatories 147–151F. Najarro, A. Herrero and E. Verdugo / Massive stars in the UV 153–170  Astrophys Space Sci (2006) 303:1–2DOI 10.1007/s10509-006-9175-z Foreword C  Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006 Modern astrophysics is a mature science that has evolvedfrom its early phase of discovery and classification to aphysics-oriented discipline focussed in finding answers tofundamentalproblems rangingfromcosmologytotheoriginand diversity of life-sustainable systems in the Universe. Forthis very reason, progress of modern astrophysics requiresthe access to the electromagnetic spectrum in the broadestenergy range. The Ultraviolet is a fundamental energy do-main since it is one of the most powerful tool to study plas-mas at temperatures in the 3,000–300,000 K range as wellas electronic transitions of the most abundant molecules inthe Universe. Moreover, the UV radiation field is a powerfulastrochemical and photoionizing agent.The impact of UV instruments in astronomical researchcan be clearly traced through the considerable success of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observatory andsuccessor instruments such as the GHRS and STIS spectro-graphs on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), or theFUSE satellite operating in the far UV (90–120nm range).Of particular importance has been access to high resolutionR  40,000–100,000 spectra providing an ability to studythe dynamics of hot plasma and separate multiple galactic,stellarorinterstellarspectrallines.Furthermore,theGALEXsatellite is providing new exciting views of UV sources.This book describes the fundamental problems in modernastrophysics that cannot progress without easy and wide-spread access to modern UV instrumentation. Three amongthem should be stressed by its relevance:1. Extrasolar planetary atmospheres and astrochemistry inthe presence of strong UV radiation fields.2. Chemical evolution of the Universe and the diffuse bary-onic content.3. The physics of accretion and outflow: the astronomicalengines.The volume contains a series of review articles that analyzethe scientific requirements for modern UV instrumentation.The first article summarizes the science case for UV astron-omy.After,severalarticlestargetingthemajorresearchfieldsof astrophysics from Solar System to cosmological researchare included. These articles analyze why and which UV in-strumentation is required to make progress in each field. Thebook ends with a summary of the UV instrumentation de-manded by the community and a brief update on techno-logical requirements. All articles in this volume have gonethrough the peer-review system of the journal “  Astrophysicsand Space Science .”This book contains the thoughts and work of the Network for UV astrophysics (NUVA) and the UV community at-large. By the end of 2002, a group of European astronomerscoming from a broad range of areas: from fundamental as-trophysical research to observational expertise in the optical,UV and X-ray ranges, as well as space instruments develop-mentteams,joinedeffortstoevaluatetheneedtodevelopnewUVinstrumentationforthecomingdecadeinordertoachievesome of the major scientific objectives of the astronomicalcommunity and make full profit of the large astronomicalfacilities planned for other spectral ranges; this group set theseed for the Network for UltraViolet Astrophysics (NUVA).At that time, STIS was working in HST and the Cosmic Ori-gins Spectrograph (COS) was being built for replacement;HST was thought to last till 2010/12, FUSE was workingnominally and GALEX was close to be launched. However,thebigspaceagencieshadnoplansfornewUVspectroscopicmissions unless the large optical/UV telescope included inthe NASA Origins plan targeted to enter development phasein2015–2020andtobelaunchedinthesecondquarterofthiscentury. Unfortunately, on Friday 16 January 2004 NASAinformed that the planned shuttle mission to service and up-grade HST (SM-4) including the substitution of STIS by Springer
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