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Aab e Hayat - History of Urdu Literature

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Aab-e hayat (Water of Life) has been described as “the most often reprinted, and most widely read, Urdu book of the past century [1], written by Muhammad Husain Azad in 1880. Aab-e hayat became the single most influential source for both anecdotes and historical theories about Urdu poetry. Its second edition in 1883 was incorporated into the official curriculum at Punjab University and several other schools. It provides an important perspective on the origin of Urdu: Although the tree of Urdu grew in the ground of Sanskrit and Bhasha, it has flowered in the breezes of Persian. .. .. there is usually some one place for establishing its genuineness and its goodness or badness, as for coins there is a mint. What is the reason that, in the beginning, Delhi was the mint of the language? The reason is that it was the seat of government. Only at the court were the hereditary nobility and the sons of the élite scholars in their own right. Their gatherings brought together people of learning and accomplishment, and through their auspicious influence made their temperaments the mold of the art and refinement and subtlety and wit of everything. Thus conversation, dress, courtesy and manners, ..
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  Ā B-E H    ̣ AY Ā T Shaping the Canon of Urdu Poetry   MUH    ̣ AMMAD H    ̣ USAIN Ā Z Ā D   translated and edited by Frances W.Pritchett   in association with Shamsur Rahman Faruqi    Contents   AcknowledgementsHow to Use This Translation'Everybody Knows This Much...'introduction by Frances W. PritchettConstructing a Literary History, a Canon, and a Theory of Poetry introduction by Shamsur Rahman Faruqi  Ā  B-E H     ̣  AY   Ā  T  Biographies of Urdu Poets of Renown, andan Account of the Improvements andReforms Made in the Urdu Language fromAge to Age   INTRODUCTIONTHE HISTORY OF THE URDU LANGUAGEWHEN PERSIAN ENTERED INTO BRAJ BHASHA,   What Effects It Created, and What Hope There Is for theFutureTHE HISTORY OF URDU POETRYTHE FIRST ERA OF  Ā   B-E H     ̣  AY   Ā  T  ,   in which Val  ī  and his accomplished contemporaries are seatedtogether in assembly 'Val  ī  '-- #83-91#    Sh ā h Mub ā rak '   Ā  br  ū '-- #91-95#    Shaik     ̣ h Sharfudd  ī  n 'Maz     ̣ m ū n'-- #96-97#    Muh    ̣ ammad Sh ā kir 'N  ā  j ī  '-- #97-100#    Muh    ̣ ammad Ah    ̣  san 'Ah    ̣  san'-- #100-101#    Ġ hul  ā m Mus    ̣ t    ̤ af  ā K     ̣ h ā n 'Yakrang'-- #101-105#    THE SECOND ERA OF  Ā   B-E H     ̣  AY   Ā  T  : Sh ā h H    ̣ā tim, K     ̣ h ā n-e Ā rz ū , Fu ġ h ā ñ (#106-122#)  Shaik     ̣ h Z    ̤ ah ū r ud-D ī  n Sh ā h 'H     ̣ā tim'-- #107-115#    Sir  ā  j ud-Din Al  ī  K     ̣ h ā n-e '   Ā  rz  ū '-- #115-117#     Ashraf Al  ī  K     ̣ h ā n-e 'Fu  ġ  h ā ñ'-- #117-121#    THE THIRD ERA OF  Ā   B-E H     ̣  AY   Ā  T  : Mirz ā Maz  ̤ har J ā n J ā n ā ñ, M  ī  r Soz, M  ī  r Taq  ī  , Mirz ā Raf   ī  Saud ā , K     ̣ hv ā  jah M  ī  r Dard (#123-220#)Part One Mirz  ā 'Maz    ̤ har' J  ā n-e J  ā n ā ñ-- #130-132, 134-141#    M  ī  r Abdul-H     ̣ ayy 'T  ā b ā ñ'-- #132-134, 140-141#    Part Two Mirz  ā Raf  ī   'Saud  ā '-- #141-172#    Part Three M  ī  r 'Z     ̣ā h    ̣ ik'-- #172-175#     K     ̣ hv ā  jah M  ī  r 'Dard'-- #175-184#    Sayyid Muh    ̣ ammad M  ī  r 'Soz'-- #184-193#    Part Four  'M  ī  r', M  ī  r Taq ī  -- #194-220#    THE FOURTH ERA OF  Ā   B-E H     ̣  AY   Ā  T  : Mus    ̣ h    ̣ af   ī  , Sayyid Insh ā , Jurat (#221-323#)Part One Shaik     ̣ h Qalandar Bak     ̣ hsh 'Jurat'-- #225-241#    M  ī  r 'H     ̣ asan'-- #241-246#    Part Two Sayyid 'Insh ā '-- #247-269#    Part Three Sayyid 'Insha' (Concluded)-- #269-295#    Part Four  Shaik     ̣ h Ġ hul  ā m Hamad  ā n ī  'Mus    ̣ h    ̣ af  ī  '-- #295-323#    THE FIFTH ERA OF  Ā   B-E H     ̣  AY   Ā  T  :  N ā sik     ̣ h, Ā tash, Sh ā h Nas    ̣ ī  r, Momin, Ż auq, Ġ h ā lib (#325-526#)Part One Shaik     ̣ h Im ā m Bak     ̣ hsh 'N  ā  sik     ̣ h'-- #327-339#    Part Two Shaik     ̣ h Im ā m Bak     ̣ hsh 'N  ā  sik     ̣ h' (Concluded)-- #339-363#    Part Three M  ī  r Mustah    ̣  san 'K     ̣ hal  ī  q'-- #364-372#      K     ̣ hv ā  jah H     ̣ aidar Al  ī  '   Ā  tash'-- #372-387#    Part Four  Sh ā h 'Nas    ̣ī  r'-- #387-404#    Part Five Momin K     ̣ h ā n 'Momin'-- #404-419#    Part Six Shaik     ̣ h Ibr  ā h ī  m '   Ż  auq'-- #420-442#    Part Seven Shaik     ̣ h Ibr  ā h ī  m '   Ż  auq' (Continued)-- #442-457#    Part Eight Shaik     ̣ h Ibr  ā h ī  m '   Ż  auq' (Concluded)-- #457-481#    Part Nine Mirz  ā Asadull  ā h K     ̣ h ā n '  Ġ h ā lib'-- #481-499#    Part Ten Mirz  ā Asadull  ā h K     ̣ h ā n '  Ġ h ā lib' (Concluded)-- #499-515#    Part Eleven Mirz  ā Sal  ā mat Al  ī  'Dab ī  r'-- #515-519#    M  ī  r Babbar Al  ī  'An ī   s'—  THE CONCLUSION OF  Ā   B-E H     ̣  AY   Ā  T  : The free ( ā  z  ā d  )servant, Muh    ̣ ammad H    ̣ usain  Bibliography    Index of Authors and Works    Index of Literary Terms   General Index of References  
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