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About Contemporary Astronomy and Cosmology

Popular explanation of some unsolved problems in Astronomy, Astrophysics, Planet-physics. Attempt to program future searches.
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  About contemporary Astronomy and Cosmology In Modern Cosmology and Astronomy should be seen an upcoming crisis. Crisis, caused by the rapid development of this scientific field.   According to the aporiae of  Zeno of Elea, the more we expand the scope of our knowledge, the more we enter into contact with the unknown. Distortion between the known and the unknown is growing and according to the laws promoted by Hegel,  sooner or later the quantitative accumulations lead to qualitative changes. On the other hand, according to the ancient philosophical teachings of the Taoism,  any phenomenon contains in itself the germ of his denial.   The field of knowledge, the subject of this article is no exception.   Research methods developed in the twentieth century from our new history, led to a boom of knowledge, unknown in all of human history. Only results from optical telescope Hubble exceeded anything human imagination could have conceived before 1980. And optics is not a lone example of progress. Atomic, nuclear, and spectroscopic methods. Seismic, gravitational methods. The methods of radio waves, gamma rays, electron streams. And more and more ... All those, coupled with high technology, computerization and the powerful reactive technique led to the scientific results that will be contemplated for generations. And making sense of the results should be a priority task of the modern stage. In this area there is a lot to be desired.   1. Gravitational energy of an astronomical body can be found in two ways: First: By calculating the work to its disintegration and the relegation of his small enough fragments in the infinity of space, where the interaction between them is negligible. Second: By integrating the pressure field inside the body throughout its volume. The results obtained by the two methods should be the same. But is it now upon us?! No! Results differ noticeably  –  the result found by the second method is   exactly 4 times smaller than the result obtained in the first method. This difference of ¾ of all is a huge field for speculation. This difference s hould be named “dark”, “black”, “invisible”, “obscure”, and so   on …  In fact, this energy is only unexplored by us. If the difference was in the first percents, we threw the responsibility on the methods. But with such big difference, we should look for the reason in the initial data. It is normal to assume that the pressure values, used by the second method are inaccurate.   2. The law of conservation of energy is the groundwork of physics. Attempts at explanations of the phenomena without him or around him are very risky.   3. Both planets and stars are supposed to have layered structure. For the Earth and the Moon that is proven by seismic.  This structure is attributed to gravitational or chemical separation. It is assumed that the Earth's core is iron. Just because seismic gives us the densities typical for the iron at the Earth's surface. But it is correct to suppose the compacting of the substance due to the high pressures. Pressures higher than those which we calculate in our models. They have to be higher due to the circumstances set out above.   Experimental data allow us to assume separation by phases. Obviously solid and gaseous phases of matter of the planets are divided. If we’ll look at our home, we’ll note the separation of the liquid from the other   phases. We’ll note also Ionic separation.  But only at this point. Within the framework of the solid phase, phenomena are so complex that the gravitational separation simply could not be found.   4. It is accepted that the stars are considered as gas complexes. Often with the ion sheath due to high temperatures. Such a glance is permissible due to the data from spectral analysis, giving a huge advantage to the lines of lighter gases. But it raises a number of inconsistencies. For a start, such an approach could not explain the formation of stars. It is not possible condensation of gases in the solid body due to the forces of repulsion between ions and molecules of gases. The gas clouds may not bring in enough tight compound to permit processes emitting such powerful emissions as observed. And all our observations show the expansion of the gas clouds, not shrinking.     Help comes with the idea of powder-gas complexes. But it's not helping enough. Powder component may condense. But to overcome the forces of repulsion of the gases and make enough dense veil around the hard core, this core must to be big enough, with enough strong intensity of the gravitational field. In other words, the powder component in the fetus must be substantial.   This leads us to conclusion that the hard core of the stars are big enough, and thus posses determining role for the energy sources, evolution and structures of the stars. Should reflect on the option, nuclear and thermonuclear phenomena observed on the surface of stars to represent the processes of re-emission of energy, released from the core of the stars due to other causes and processes.   5. The large difference between the average densities of planets and stars and their surface densities leads to construction of a laminar models. These models are acceptable by analogy with the Earth and the Moon, for which are proven. But for the stars, the patterns lead to densities in the centers above 150 grams in cubic centimeter! Astonishing and unacceptable value for gas complexes. In the observed temperatures and chemical composition such densities long ago would have caused explosions. We with you would not have been alive and constituent of our bodies. And would be fly in space in the form of molecules, radicals, ions and atoms. And they would be blistering, in the form of cold radiations.   6. The Universe is expanding. Galaxies are expanding. Clusters are expanding. The stars are expanding. And our planet is expanding, too. It seems, the expansion is a universal law. Why? What causes it? And what is the mechanism?! Should reflect on the likelihood of processes in stars which lead to passage of the solid phase into a gas phase. Thus the ratio between the centripetal force and centrifugal force is changing in favor of the latter and consequently the body comes to the expansion.   Powerfully stimulated by the military preparations, Nuclear and Atomic Physics got unparalleled prosperity. Those areas of physics eclipsed all other areas of human knowledge. It is naturally, the prestige of this progress to put their marks on astronomy and cosmology. Today all phenomena in the Universe are seen through the prism of nuclear physics. Without a doubt, this filter helped to achieve very much. But does not get carried away. According to Tao, the powerful accelerator is to the same degree limiter. In particular, construction, energy, and evolution of the stars are seen through the filter of nuclear and thermonuclear processes. This approach has led to theories of neutrino, dark energy, dark matter and  attempts to revise the Law of Conservation of Energy. After the big wave of progress, we are at the edge to enter into the swamp of the dark times. I suggest a dark forces, dark energy, black matter to be left to the Vatican. In this area the Holy Father and the Conclave outnumber us. We have gravitational forces, electric forces, nuclear forces. And our explanations should be looking at the context of this toolkit. It is good time to turn to gravity, with the hope of a new approach to clear and simply our present understandings.  


Jul 23, 2017

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