Awareness of HIV/STD among children aged 13 to 17 years of an urban high school in Mangalore

Adolescence is a special period of growth where the individual is learning to outgrow childhood and has to cope with various behavioral and physiological changes. This complicated by urge for experimentation makes them vulnerable for acquisition of
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  International Journal of Biomedical And Advance Research   ISSN: 2229-3809 (Online) Journal DOI:10.7439/ijbar  OD!N:IJ"#"N Short Communication  Awareness of HIV/STD among children aged 13 to 17 years of an urban high school in angalore Sudarshan K. Shetty* , Thomas M. Maveli, Siddarth S. Joshi and Vijaya M. Shenoy  Department of Pediatrics , K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Derlakatte, Mangalore, India. *Correspondence Info: Dr. Sudarshan K. Shetty, Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics , K.S.e!de Medical Academy, Derla"atte, Man!alore  , #ndia.$mail% sudarshanshetty&'()*!  Short Communication Adolescence is a special period of !ro+th +here the individual is learnin! to out!ro+ childhood and has to cope +ith various ehavioral and physiolo!ical chan!es. This complicated y ur!e for e-perimentation ma"es them vulnerale for acuisition of se-ually transmitted diseases & . $ducational interventions may have some impact in reducin! the ris"y  ehavior common to this population, in preventin! the spread of infection. /omen and children are at a hi!her ris" for STD0#V transmission in #ndia and in this ac"!round educatin! and raisin! the a+areness amon! the vulnerale adolescent !irls should e of utmost importance in preventin! this epidemic disease. This study attempts to assess the "no+led!e of #V and STD amon! the school !oin! student a!ed et+een &1 years to &( years in Man!alore, a coastal to+n in south #ndia. This +as an oservational study +hich included student attendin! hi!h school of an uran area school +here the sujects +ere from a mi-ed socioeconomic status. $thical clearance +as ta"en from the institutional ethical committee. After informed consent from the school head and the student, a uestionnaire +as !iven to e ans+ered individually y the suject. Any douts re!ardin! the uestions +ere cleared y the investi!ator at the site follo+ed y an educational tal" lastin! &) minutes post test. The Total numers of respondents +ere (23, amon! them (45 +ere male and 22 +ere female sujects. Amon! them 5)1 615.'78 either elieved that #V +as not prevalent in Man!alore or did not "no+ the e-istence of such a disease, 94' 6)1.178 elieved promiscuous ehavior and 541 652.9 78 e lived a dru! ause as hi!h ris"s for #V0STD transmission, &3) 659 78 elieved "issin! transmitted #V0STD, (2 6'.' 78 due to mosuito ite, &&& 6&9.)78 due to use of common toilets, '16&5.&78 due to sharin! a room, 13 6)78 due to sha"in! hands. Amon! the respondents &(3 65178 did not "no+ the use of condom in preventin! STDs0#V transmission. More !irls +ere a+are aout condom and its use than oys IJBAR (2013) 04 (08)     Abstract Adolescence is a period of many chan!es, includin! physical, mental, physiolo!ical, ehavioural chan!es occurin! in an individual. This vulnerale period ma"es the child susceptile to se-ually transmitted diseases due to various reasons. /e surveyed an uran school of coastal Karnata"a state in children a!ed &1 to &( years for a+areness re!ardin! #V0STD. Amon! the (23 respondents, only )1.)7 eleived that protected se- reduced the ris" of #V0STD transmission. +e also revie+ed other investi!ators and recommend more educational interventions in the school.  Keywords: #V a+areness, adolescents    Shetty   et al 507 6)(.27 Vs 5478. Amon! the !irls, 13 6)(.278, elieved that condom can help to prevent un+anted pre!nancies and only && 6&2.278 elieved it prevented STDs. #n the study !roup 699.178 +ere not a+are of proper use of the condom and most of the oys 22.2 7 69238 elieved condom is used only y men. )1.)7 elieved that protected se- +ith condom use reduced the ris" of #V0STD transmission ut 3&7 did not "no+ that usin! a second hand needle could transmit #V0STDs. :early a third 65'.978, mostly !irls, advocated astinence to avoid #V0STD transmission and )&7 elieved that there +as treatment availale for #V. The first case of #V +as reported in #ndia in &'32. An estimated &,94,444 student in #ndia are infected +ith #V, +ith &9,)44 ne+ly infected added every year caused mostly y parent to child transmission +ith a small proportion infected  y unsafe injections and lood transfusions. student less than &) years a!e account for (7 and +omen 1'7 of all infections accordin! to a recent findin! y the :ational A#DS ;ontrol <r!ani=ation 6:A;<8 5 . The already urdened health care system in #ndia is handicapped y the costs of the dia!nostic tests and medications reuired to cater to such a hu!e  population. To achieve the !loal tar!ets of >?ero :e+ #nfections, ?ero A#DS related deaths @ ?ero discrimination,  prevention and a+areness campai!ns appears to e more cost effective. Many adolescents around the +orld are se-ually active and many such contacts unprotected, +hich ma"es them at ris" of contractin! se-ually transmitted diseases 6STDs8. Another reason for their vulneraility is the lac" of se- education, includin! education on STD prevention & . #n a conservative society li"e #ndia, most parents hesitate to discuss topics related to se-ual issues and teens turn to peers or cheap media and !et inaccurate information. #n a lar!e community ased study from +estern #ndia, +here the majority of responders +ere youn! people a!ed et+een &)B54 years, investi!ators that found a+areness aout #V0STDs in 2(.)7 of +omen and most of them uoted television as the source of information. They also found 147 of the population studied +ould not approach !overnment health services center for information 1 . Thus media needs to e utili=ed optimally for accurate se- education and a+areness aout STDs amon! the impressionale minds instead of +aitin! for them to approach the health service providers. The po+er of education +as +ell documented y researchers from northern #ndia, +here they found that the rural hi!h school !irls +ere a+are of #V ut not of other STDs and +hen provided +ith educational material the a+areness +as found to e increased on follo+ up 9 . This trend has een documented in other parts of the +orld ) . Cetter educated !irls tended to delay se-ual activity and +ere more li"ely to insist that their partner use a condom 2 . The present study +as conducted in a district +ith an avera!e literacy rate of 33.27 +ith a female literacy rate of 397. /e need to understand that education and a+areness alone mi!ht not chan!e the attitude or understandin! re!ardin! #V0STDs transmission, ut an accurate and sustained se- education especially of the youn! population is needed to +eed out this illness from reachin! epidemic proportions. Primary prevention amon! youn! people is the !reatest hope to chan!e the course of #V epidemic in #ndia. Thou!h national and +orld odies li"e :#;$E, :A;<, :$S;< and :EPA have initiated tar!eted interventions 6T#s8 and educational pro!rams li"e Fed Fion ;lus, it needs to e implemented in its true spirit to pass on life s"ills and  preventive messa!es. Accordin! to the :ational Eamily ealth Survey 5442, misconceptions aout #V transmission are more common amon! +omen, more men than +omen are a+are of preventive strate!ies and of opinion that the youn!er !eneration should e se- educated at school. Thou!h the :A;< reports are promisin! sho+in! a decreasin! trend of #V transmission in #ndia, +e need to fortify our preventive strate!ies +ith providin! accurate information to the vulnerale adolescents involvin! the schools and the media to eradicate this epidemic. Acknowledgements This study +as possile due to the financial !rant provided y :#TT$ niversity. There are no conflicts of interest. References &./orld ealth <r!ani=ation. Dehne KG, Fiedner H. Se-ually Transmitted #nfections Amon! Adolescents% The :eed Eor Adeuate ealth Services. /orld ealth <r!ani=ation and Deutsche Hesellschaft Euer Technische ?usammenareit 6HT?8 Hmh. Heneva% 544). p -iB55.Annual Feport 54&5B&1 6#ndia8. :ational A#DS ;ontrol <r!anisation #ndia, Department of A#DS ;ontrol, @ Ministry of ealth @ Eamily /elfare 54&1Isec5Ip21.Sin!h  S . A cross sectional study of a+areness on #V0A#DS and STDs amon! youn! adult population 6&)B59 ears8 of villa!es of Anand District.  Indian Journal of Community Medicine 5442I 1&698%p14&. IJBAR (2013) 04 (08)     Shetty   et al 508 9.Kaur S, Padda AS, Sin!h T, Deepti SS. A+areness of STDs and #V0A#DS amon! the adolescent !irls of classes #B## in Amritsar, Punja% An interventional study.  Indian J Dermatol enereol !eprol 544'I()%)&'B54.).Vandermoortele J, Delamonica $. The >education vaccine a!ainst #V. ;urr #ssues comparative $duc 544&I 1% 2L&1 6online journal availale atia.edu0cice82./orld Can" 6S8. $ducation and #V0A#DS% A /indo+ of ope. /ashin!ton% 5445. p ( IJBAR (2013) 04 (08)  
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