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  Research proposal Cross Cultural HRM Mehwish Waheed CMS no. 16459Mhwsh.waheed@outlook.comMS (Manaement!Ri"hah #nterna$onal %ni&ersit'#slama)ad   You’re Meant To Succeed: Exploring The Linkagesbetween Personality, Social etwork !nd "areer!d#ance$ent Potential Abstract This study is intended to explore the dynamics of social networks and their role in shaping thecareer pattern of an individual. We study the role of personality in determining the career advancement potential of employees by examining the role of social networks. Recent literature gives a high value to the study of social network possessed by an employee and its effects on hisor her work. Introduction Organizational social network research today revolves around the role of individual’s personalcharacteristics. Researchers look at this phenomenon in two contrasting ways. Some of themrelate to the psychological factors that affect social network building process while others talk about the larger scale sociological factors that shape the individuals in a particular setting(Tasselli !ilduff " #enges $%&'. )hen we e*plore the psychological aspect in detail wecome across researchers’ contributions regarding the role of personality as well as cognition inshaping one’s network preferences (+ewcomb &,-& /eider &,'0. 1ifferent dispositionalfactors may affect the social interactions in all the possible ways. 2 longitudinal study conducted by 2sendorpf and )ilpers (&,,0 with the university students showed that e*traversionagreeableness and conscientiousness have a more significant impact on the social relationships.2n interesting finding of this study was that the impact of personality on the social structure isn’talways intentional rather it can be shaped largely by unintentional factors. )hen we take a closer look at the social networks and how they work we come to know thatthey affect a number of ways in which people interact and work in their organizations. One of those factors is how people move within the organizations and what is the role of their socialnetworks in their promotions. 3eople who are a part of large social networks with structural holeshave more chances of upward mobility in their organizations (3odolny " 4aron &,,-.   +etworking behaviors of the people help them establish fruitful relationships with others whocan potentially help them climb the ladders in their career path. 3eople tend to form a network of useful relationships within or outside the organization that can be particularly helpful in their careers (5orret " 1ougherty $%%6. 2dditionally a number of studies have e*plored therelationship of personality with the career advancement of individuals where some traits have been proved to be related to different aspects of one’s career advancement. (e.g. Seibert "!raimer $%%&. 7t is therefore important to see if these networks developed on the basis of  personality traits actually have an impact on the career advancement of individuals. Literature review:  Personality and social networks: Social network research is woven around four basic ideas that are interdependent but uni8ue(!ilduff " 4rass $%&%. Social network relates to the e*istence and type of relationships between different actors. These relationships can be in the form of friendship advice or communication on the basis of which these actors may be connected or separated (!ilduff "Tsai $%%9. The relationship between personality and social networks has been e*plored in anumber of studies. 1ifferent aspects of personality have been seen to check their impact on thesocial networks of individuals. The relationship between self monitoring personality andlikelihood of having key positions in the social network and pursuing a higher social status iswell established (#ehra kilduff " 4rass $%%& 5lynn Reagans 2manatullah " 2mes $%%-.3eople high in self monitoring capture the attention of others and people tend to formulatefriendship ties with them particularly for their emotional needs (Toegel et al $%%: Sasovova etal $%&%. 3eople high in self monitoring possess a great ability to adapt according to thesituation and use a number of tactics like humor careful communication listening to otherstalking openly with well connected people and playing important role in conflict resolutions(5urnham " ;apon &,09 Turner &,0% 5ang " Shaw $%%,. 2 relatively newer developmentin self monitoring theory is that high self monitors can use the people so as to fulfill their ownneeds. 4ig five personality traits have been studied for their impact on the social network.<*troverts as the name suggests tend to have bigger and active social networks that they use for their benefits (/enderson &,0& 4olger " <ckenrode &,,&. <*troverts and agreeable peoplehave more network ties whereas neurotics tend to be less efficient in social networking at their   workplaces. /owever the research in this regard shows mi*ed results and there is no consensusregarding the impact of these traits on the social network. <*traversion tends to decrease withaging and e*perience and people high in neuroticism have high degree centrality in their adviceand friendship circles (Roberts )ilson 5edurek " 1unbar $%%0 !lein =im Saltz " #ayer$%%6. ;onscientiousness although isn’t related to social popularity but based on the traits possessed by the conscientious people like hard work detail orientation persistence etc. othersmight seek them for advice. Similarly people with higher scores on openness to e*perience alsohave more connections and people tend to be around them (!ashdan et al $%&&. /oweverevidence shows that they are often disliked in groups (e.g. !lein et al $%%6.  Social networks and career advancement potential: )hen an individual tries to build up and maintain relationships with others for the purpose of using them for growth or benefit in >ob or career he is assumed to be involved in networking behavior (5orret " 1ougherty $%%6. 7ndividuals attempt to make a web of relationships aroundthem with the people from their own organizations and outsiders with the intention of using theserelationships for career growth (/iggins " !ram $%%&. These networks contain some helpinghands known as mentors who provide support and help to others who in turn become their  prot?g?. /owever mentorship goes beyond a certain level and is more specific and personalrelationship as compared to social networking behavior. The role of networking in career growth has been e*plored in a number of studies that focus ondifferent types of networking behaviors e*hibited by the employees to gain benefits in their careers. These behaviors include self managing network development volunteering for important tasks establishing personal relationships etc and the career development task istransferred to other people around instead of the organization itself (2rthur " 3ost &,,- /all&,:-. 5ive main types of networking behaviors include contact development socialization communitywork increasing visibility in the network and active participation in professional activities(5orret " 1ougherty $%%6. +ot everyone engages in social networking activities and this isstrongly associated with the personality and demographics of the individual. 3eople with  e*trovert personality high self esteem and conscientiousness tend to engage more in socialnetworking activities (5orret " 1ougherty $%%& )anberg !anfer " 4anas $%%%. 2lthough the relationship between social networking and career advancement is supported byliterature a few empirical studies have attempted to 8uantify it. +etworking has been found to berelated to salary growth promotions and rate of advancement in the organizations (@ould "3enley &,06 =uthans /odgetts " Rosenkrantz &,00. 7t is a well established fact that manyfactors contribute to attainment of career goals and developing a supportive network is one of them.  Personality and career advancement: <vidence shows that network positions contribute to performance outcomes (e.g. 4aldwin et al.&,,: 4urt &,,$ ;ross and ;ummings $%%6 #ehra et al. $%%& Seibert et al. $%%&.5urthermore personality metaAanalyses show that selfAmonitoring and the 4ig 5ive traits predict >ob performance and career success (e.g. 4arrick et al. $%%& 1ay et al. $%%$ +g et al. $%%'.Together findings from these different research streams suggest that people with certain personality traits tend to attain structurally advantageous positions and that the occupation of these advantageous positions in turn influences people’s performance and career success. Theattainment of an advantageous network position is one possible mechanism by which personalityaffects work outcomes.3rior work on the relationships among personality network position and performance supportsthis possibility. #ehra et al. ($%%& found that selfAmonitoring predicted employees’ occupancyof brokerage positions and that the selfAmonitoring and network variables predicted workplace performance when e*amined separately and simultaneously. These results indicate a pattern of  partial mediation in which selfAmonitoring affects the attainment of advantageous network  position and both selfAmonitoring and network position influence performance. 2 recent studyon individuals’ multirole networks (4urt $%&$ found that individuals’ personality characteristicsmeasured as consistent network behaviors across roles (called BnetworkArelated personalityC predicted the occupancy of strategically advantageous positions. 2lthough this research assertedthat Bmuch of the variance in network advantage reflects personality but that portion of advantage variance has little to do with successC (4urt $%&$ p. '0- we suggest that this
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