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Cluster Based Routing Algorithm to Enhance Energy Efficiency and Security in Multicast Ad-Hoc Networks

Cluster Based Routing Algorithm to Enhance Energy Efficiency and Security in Multicast Ad-Hoc Networks
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  IJDACR ISSN: 2319-4863   International Journal of Digital Application & Contemporary research Website: (Volume 1, Issue 9, April 2013)   Cluster Based Routing Algorithm to Enhance EnergyEfficiency and Security in Multicast Ad-Hoc Networks Heena Khan Rakesh Sharma    Abstract   –    An Ad-Hoc network is a multi-hop wirelessnetwork where all nodes cooperatively maintainnetwork connectivity without a centralizedinfrastructure. If these nodes change their positionsdynamically, it is called a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). Since the network topology changesfrequently, efficient adaptive routing protocols such asAODV, DSR are used. As the network is wireless,security becomes the major issue in Mobile Ad hocNetworks. Recently many studies have focused ondesigning mobility based multicast routing protocolsfor wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) on theassumption that the energy of host is an importantparameter to be considered. Some of the attacks suchas modification, fabrication, impersonation and denialof service attacks are due to misbehaviour of maliciousnodes, which disrupts the transmission. In thisSynopsis we proposed an efficient secure AODVrouting protocol. Our proposed routing algorithm willprovide a better level of security and performancethan existing works. The results parameters will showin terms of improvement of the network performance,in terms of throughput, Network lifetime, devicearrangement and end to end delay for the proposedsecure & efficient routing protocol.   Keywords  –    MANET, AODV, DSR, Throughput,Network lifetime. I.   I  NTRODUCTION  Wireless networks are gaining popularity to itsuttermost today, as the users want wirelessconnectivity irrespective of their geographical position.Wireless Networks enable users tocommunicate and transfer data with each other without any wired medium between them. One of the reasons of the popularity of these networks iswidely penetration of wireless devices. Wirelessapplications and devices mainly emphasize onWireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). This hasmainly two modes of operations, i.e. in the presenceof Control Module (CM) also known as BaseStations and Ad-Hoc connectivity where there is noControl Module. Ad-Hoc networks do not dependon fixed infrastructure in order to carry out their operations. The operation mode of such network isstand alone, or may be attached with one or multiple points to provide internet and connectivity tocellular networks. These networks exhibits the sameconventional problems of wireless communicationsi.e. bandwidth limitations, battery power,enhancement of transmission quality and coverage problems.Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks are autonomousand decentralized wireless systems. MANETscontains mobile nodes that are free in moving in andout in the network. Nodes are the systems or devicesi.e. mobile phone, laptop, personal digitalassistance, MP3 player and personal computer thatare contributing in the network and are mobile.Security in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network is themost vital concern for the basic functionality of network. The accessibility of network services,confidentiality and reliability of the data can beachieved by assuring that security issues have beenmet. MANETs frequently suffer from securityattacks because of its features like open medium,changing its topology dynamically, absence of central monitoring and management, cooperativealgorithms and no clear defence mechanism. Theseissues have changed the battle field situation for theMANETs against the security threats.The MANETs work without a centralizedadministration where the nodes converse with eachother on the basis of mutual trust. This characteristicmakes MANETs more susceptible to be misused byan attacker inside the network. Wireless links alsomakes the MANETs more vulnerable to attacks,which make it easier for the attacker to go inside thenetwork and get access to the currentcommunication [1, 2]. Mobile nodes present withinthe range of wireless link can overhear and even joinin the network.The objective of this paper is to make a protocol more energy efficient, and to secure routing packets of proposed protocol in MANET which is basically based on AODV protocol.We analyse the influence of heterogeneity of mobilenodes, in terms of their energy, which is anefficiency parameter, in MANET that areclassifiably clustered. In these networks nodes areselected as a cluster heads randomly, aggregate thedata of their cluster members and transmit it to the  IJDACR ISSN: 2319-4863   International Journal of Digital Application & Contemporary research Website: (Volume 1, Issue 9, April 2013)   sink, in our protocol this random distributiondepends upon the distribution of energy criteria.We have assumed that a percentage of mobile nodes is fortified with supplementary energyresources as compare with normal sensors  —  this isa reason of heterogeneity which may result from theinitial situation or as the set-up of the network starts.Also the initial optimum probability is calculatedthrough probability distribution approach. We alsoassume that the devices are erratically (uniformly)distributed and are mobile, the coordinates of thesink and the dimensions of the sensor field areknown. Traditional protocols assume that all thenodes are armed with the same expanse of energyand as a result, they cannot take full advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity.The A ODV protocol’s routing have been improved in our approach. The proposed Protocolhave a Hash Signature, The structure will be moresecured when we combine this Hash Signature withthe Data Packets.II.   MANETA Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configuring infrastructure-less network of mobiledevices linked by wireless. It is a group of wirelessmobile computers (or nodes) in which nodescooperate by forwarding packets for each other toallow them to communicate outside range of straightwireless transmission. Ad hoc networks require nocentralized administration or fixed network infrastructure such as base stations or access points,and can be quickly and inexpensively set up asneeded [3]. Figure 1: Example of a simple Ad-Hoc Network with three participating nodes  A MANET is an independent group of mobile usersthat communicate over reasonably slow wirelesslinks. The network topology may vary rapidly andunpredictably over time, because the nodes aremobile. The network is reorganised, where allnetwork activity, including discovering the topologyand delivering messages must be executed by thenodes themselves. Hence routing functionality willhave to be incorporated into the mobile nodes.  MANET Features Mobile ad hoc network nodes are furnished withwireless transmitters and receivers using antennas,which may be highly directional (point-to-point),omnidirectional (broadcast), probably steerable, or some combination thereof [4]. At a given point intime, depending on positions of nodes, their transmitter and receiver coverage patterns,communication power levels and co-channelinterference levels, a wireless connectivity in theform of a random, multi- hop graph or “ad - hoc” network exists among the nodes. This ad hoctopology may modify with time as the nodes moveor adjust their transmission and reception parameters.A MANET has the following features:  A. Autonomous terminal  In MANET, each mobile terminal is an independentnode, which may function as both a host and arouter. In other words, besides the basic processingability as a host, the mobile nodes can also performswitching functions as a router. So usually endpointsand switches are indistinguishable in MANET.  B. Distributed operation Since there is no background network for the centralcontrol of the network operations, the control andmanagement of the network is distributed among theterminals. The nodes involved in a MANET shouldcollaborate amongst themselves and each node actsas a relay as needed, to implement functions and routing. C. Multi-hop Routing  Basic types of ad hoc routing algorithms can besingle-hop and multi-hop, based on different link layer qualities and routing protocols. Single-hopMANET is simpler than multi-hop in terms of structure and implementation, with the cost of lesser functionality and applicability. When conveyingdata packets from a source to its destination out of the direct wireless transmission range, the packetsshould be forwarded through one or moreintermediate nodes.  D. Dynamic network topology Since the nodes are mobile, the network topologymay change rapidly and randomly and theconnectivity among the terminals may vary withtime. MANET should adapt to the traffic and propagation conditions as well as the mobility patterns of the mobile network nodes. The mobilenodes in the network dynamically establish routing ABC  IJDACR ISSN: 2319-4863   International Journal of Digital Application & Contemporary research Website: (Volume 1, Issue 9, April 2013)   among themselves as they move about, formingtheir own network on the fly. Moreover, a user inthe MANET may not only operate within the ad hocnetwork, but may require access to a public fixednetwork (e.g. Internet).  E. Fluctuating link capacity The nature of high bit-error rates of wirelessconnection might be more profound in a MANET.One end-to-end path can be shared by severalsessions. The channel over which the terminalscommunicate is subj9ect to noise, fading, andinterference, and has less bandwidth than a wirednetwork. In some scenarios, the path between any pair of users can traverse multiple wireless links andthe link themselves can be heterogeneous.  F. Light-weight terminals In most cases, the MANET nodes are mobiledevices with less CPU processing capability, smallmemory size, and low power storage. Such devicesneed optimized algorithms and mechanisms thatimplement the computing and communicatingfunctions.III.   MANET S R  OUTING P ROTOCOLS  Routing is the act of moving information fromsource to a destination in an internet work. Duringthis process, at least one intermediate node withinthe internetwork is encountered. The routingconcept basically involves two activities: firstly,determining optimal paths and secondly,transferring the information groups (called packets)through an internetwork. The latter concept is calledas packet switching, which is straight forward, and path determination is very complex.In mobile ad-hoc network every node ishaving routing capability. Nodes are within theradio range (transmission-range) are called its Neighbours. When the destination node is neighbour of source node, packets are transferred with singlehop. When the destination node is neighbour of source node, packets are transferred with single hop.When the destination node is out of radio-range (nota neighbours of source node) then packet aretransferred in multiple hops using intermediatenodes. These intermediate nodes (neighbours of source node) forward packets to their neighboursand so on till destination is reached. This is shownin figures below: Figure 2 (a): Single hop transfer when S and D are in radio rangeFigure 2 (b): Multiple hops when S and D are not in radio range  AODV Protocol  AODV is described in RFC 3561 [6]. It’s reactive  protocol, when a node wishes to start transmissionwith another node in the network to which it has norou6e; AODV will provide topology information for the node. AODV use control messages to find a routeto the destination node in the network. Characteristics of AODV     Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicastcommunication.    On-demand route establishment with smalldelay.    Multicast trees connecting group membersmaintained for lifetime of multicast group.Link breakages in active routes efficientlyrepaired.    All routes are loop-free through use of sequence numbers.    Use of Sequence numbers to track accuracyof information. S DSD  IJDACR ISSN: 2319-4863   International Journal of Digital Application & Contemporary research Website: (Volume 1, Issue 9, April 2013)      Only keeps track of next hop for a routeinstead of the entire route.    Use of periodic HELLO messages to track neighbours [13].  Advantages and Disadvantages of AODV  The main advantage of AODV protocol is that routesare established on demand and destination sequencenumbers are used to find the latest route to thedestination. The connection setup delay is less. TheHELLO messages supporting the routes maintenanceare range-limited, so they do not cause unnecessaryoverhead in the network. One of the disadvantages of this protocol is that intermediate nodes can lead toinconsistent routes if the source sequence number isvery old and the intermediate nodes have a higher butnot the latest destination sequence number, therebyhaving stale entries. Also multiple Route-Reply packets in response to a single Route-Request packetcan lead to heavy control overhead [13]. Another disadvantage of AODV is that the periodic beaconingleads to unnecessary bandwidth consumption.IV.   P ROPOSED M ETHODOLOGY    AODV     In AODV, the network is silent until aconnection is needed.    Setting up Devices & field in the Network     Calculate Distance vector between nodes,and update look up matrix with respect todistance matrix.    Calculate path and cost with respect to sourcedevice, destination device and lookup values between them.    Start Sending Packets according to Distancevector.    When a link fails, a routing error is passed back to a transmitting node, and the processrepeats.    The advantage of AODV is that it creates noextra traffic for communication alongexisting links.    Also, distance vector routing is simple, anddoesn't require much memory or calculation.    However AODV requires more time toestablish a connection, and the initialcommunication to establish a route is heavier than some other approaches.    Finally Update Efficiency Parametersdefined in Network for results.Figure below shows the basic flow diagram of  proposed SMCRP protocol. Figure 3: Basic Flow diagram of Proposed SMCRPAlgorithm   SMCRP (Proposed Algorithm) In recent years there have been some differentapproaches on cluster-based routing. In Cluster basedRouting Protocol, the devices of a wireless network aredivided into several disjoint or overlapping clusters.Each cluster elects one node as the so-called cluster-head. These special nodes are responsible for therouting process. Neighbours of cluster-heads cannot becluster-heads as well. But cluster-heads are able tocommunicate with each other by using gateway nodes.A gateway is a node that has two or more cluster-headsas its neighbours or   —  when the clusters are disjoint  —  at least one cluster-head and another gateway node.The routing process itself is performed as sourcerouting by flooding the network with a route requestmessage. Due to the clustered structure there will beless traffic, because route requests will only be passed between cluster-heads.    In SMCRP, the network is silent until aconnection is needed.    Setting up Devices & field in the Network.    Setup initial Energies of devices dependupon user defined scenario.    Create a Cluster network of these devices,and divide a bunch of devices into number of  If not selectedSet-up of Field and Initialization of ParametersCalculate Distance vector, and the path& cost values according to itSet-up optimum value of probability based on energy valuesSelection of nodes as a cluster head based on selection probability If selected   The node will continue round as a cluster head and the region around the selectednode and the destination will be thecluster region. All other nodes which is a part of this region participate in routing asa cluster member   IJDACR ISSN: 2319-4863   International Journal of Digital Application & Contemporary research Website: (Volume 1, Issue 9, April 2013)   clusters. The cluster mechanism in it is, ineach cluster there is a cluster head, all devicestransmit there data to cluster head and thencluster head route the data to the destination.    The problem in it is a proper selection of these cluster heads.    Model an secured energy based cluster Headselection scheme, in which selection criteriadepends upon a bunch of energies (average,dissipated, residual, and current)    The benefit of applying such a behaviour innetwork, is to increase network lifespan andhence the efficiency parameters likethroughput, end to end delay.    Calculate Distance vector between nodes,and update look up matrix with respect todistance matrix.    Calculate path and cost with respect to sourcedevice, destination device and lookup values between them.    Devices Start Sending Packets to cluster heads according to Distance vector.    The Cluster head route the data gatheredfrom devices to Destination depends uponthe Distance vector between nodes innetwork (One can simply say it as Cluster  based Distance vector routing scheme).    Finally Update Efficiency Parametersdefined in Network for results. Clustering Hierarchy Consider a Mobile Ad-Hoc network that ishierarchically clustered. The protocol containsclustering hierarchy. In basic routing, the clusters arere- established in each “round.” New cluster heads are elected in each round and as a result the load is welldistributed and balanced among the nodes of thenetwork. Moreover each node transmits to the closestcluster head so as to split the communication cost tothe sink (which is tens of times greater than the processing and operation cost.) Only the cluster headhas to report to the sink and may expend a largeamount of energy, but this happens periodically for each node. In traditional clustering there is an optimal percentage p opt (determined a priori) of nodes that hasto become cluster heads in each round assuminguniform distribution of nodes in space.If the nodes are homogeneous, which means that allthe nodes in the field have the same initial energy, thetraditional protocol guarantees that every one of themwill become a cluster head exactly once every 1/ p opt  rounds. Throughout this work, this number of roundsrefer to, 1/p opt , as epoch of the clustered Mobile Ad-Hoc network. Initially each node can become acluster head with a probability p opt . On average, n × p opt  nodes must become cluster heads per round per epoch. Nodes that are elected to be cluster heads in the currentround can no longer become cluster heads in the sameepoch. The non-elected nodes belong to the set G andin order to maintain a steady number of cluster heads  per round, the probability of nodes ЄG to become a cluster head increases after each round in the sameepoch. The decision is made at the beginning of each round by each node s Є G independently choosing a random number in [0, 1]. If the random number is lessthan a threshold T(s) then the node becomes a cluster head in the current round. The threshold is set as: (){    (   )    Where, r is the current round number (starting from round 0.) The election probability of nodes Є G to  become cluster heads increases in each round in thesame epoch and becomes equal to 1 in the last roundof the epoch. Note that by round a time interval isdefined that where all cluster members have totransmit to their cluster head once. It is shown in thiswork how the election process of cluster heads should be adapted appropriately to deal with heterogeneousnodes, which means that not all the nodes in the fieldhave the same initial energy. Optimal Clustering  This clustering is optimal in the sense that energyconsumption is well distributed over all devices andthe total energy consumption is minimum. Suchoptimal clustering highly depends on the energy modeluses. For the purpose of this study this work usesimilar energy model and analysis.It consider all energy parameters like residual energy,average energy, initial energy and the total energy, andmake an optimal mobile device selection structurewhich depend upon these energies to extend thelifetime of the network.According to the radio energy dissipation model, inorder to achieve an acceptable Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR) in transmitting an L-bit message over a distanced, the energy expended by the radio is given by:   ()                  }  Where   is the energy dissipated per bit to runthe transmitter or the receiver circuit,   and    depend on the transmitter amplifier model uses, and d  is the distance between the sender and the receiver,By equating the two expressions at d = d0 , It has
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