Cold Process Soap Making

For making soap
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    Cold Process Soap Making At a glance:    Community of Practice - Other    Type: Workshop    Duration : 1 hour and a half active work, 4-6 weeks for the soap to cure    Min/Max participants: N/A    Room/space requirements: A kitchen with a source of heat. If this isn’t suitable yo u will need portable electric/gas hobs. Objectives    To learn how to make solid soap and understand how soap can help develop a social enterprise EWB-UK Training Hand Over Pack  1.   Introduction This is one of the workshops run at the Small is… festivals.. Soap making forms a suitable basis for a sustainable social enterprise abroad. Projects in Tanzania, South Africa and Nigeria have been set up to train the local community in how to make soap. People can create a sustainable business from this on either a small or large scale. 2.   Venue A kitchen with a source of heat If this isn’t suitable you will need portable electric/gas hobs. 3.   Accommodation 4.   Food 5.   Typical Itinerary Time Activity Equipment 5 minutes Welcome 5 minutes Introduction 5 minutes Theory 40-80 minutes Practical See material list 5 minutes Wrapping Up 5 minutes Closing Sign-ups for email 6.   Session Information Preparation    Read background material    Prepare equipment, tools and materials    Prepare sign-up sheets for new members Welcome (5 minutes) Introduce yourself:    Your Name    Position/Job/Organisation    Your role in the workshop    Relevant experience to the workshop (University, projects, work etc.) Explain the learning objectives of the workshop to the audience:  The purpose of this workshop is for participants to learn how to make their own bar of soap. The method used here is the cold process method. Some heating is required but it is very low temperature. The recipe used here is a basic soap recipe however there are many other recipes which use different ingredients to achieve a specific type of soap Soap making may not appear relevant to the issue of sustainability or development however it forms a suitable basis for a sustainable social enterprise. Also discussed in this workshop is a bit on the science behind soap; the chemical reactions that take place to create it. Introduction (5 Minutes) A look into how soap is relevant in the developing world Soap making forms a suitable basis for a sustainable social enterprise abroad. Projects in Tanzania, South Africa and Nigeria have been set up to train the local community in how to make soap. People can create a sustainable business from this on either a small or large scale. Soap making requires very little materials and equipment. The majority of the ingredients are easy to get hold and often found in the local community. Things like packaging for soaps offers further social enterprise opportunities What makes soap so attractive as a social enterprise is its flexibility. On a small scale people can make soap and sell it within their community however with funding or continued growth a company making and selling soap can employ a significant number of people. With enough success the soap can be begin to be exported Theory (5 Minutes) A little bit about the science behind soap making The main process involved in soap making is saponification. Saponification is the name for a chemical reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt. In the cold process method you mix an oil or fat (Acid) with Lye (Base) to form the soap (Salt) The base must always be composed of one hydroxide ion. Here you are using lye (Sodium hydroxide) which c ontains one sodium ion and one hydroxide ion. The sodium ion doesn’t take part in the reaction, just the hydroxide ion. Other bases can be used such as potassium hydroxide but this is normally used for liquid soap The acid can take a variety of forms. Each acid has a unique combination of triglycerides (Compounds with 3 fatty acids attached to a single molecule of glycerol). The amount of base required to react with the acid will depend on the chemical structure of the acid  When the acid and base are mixed together the triglycerides release the single glycerol molecule (Which turns into skin nourishing glycerine) which enables the fatty acids to combine with hydroxide ions to form soap. Essentially two reactions occur. The first is turning the glycerol into glycerine and the second is the acid and base reacting to form the salt (soap) w is the saponification table. It is a table demonstrating how different acids affect the outcome of the soap. Explaining the terms: 1.   SAP  –  How many milligrams of baser is required to completely saponify 1 gram of an acid. This is normally given in terms of how much potassium hydroxide is needed 2.   Hard/Soft  –  How hard or soft the bar of soap will be. If a bar of soap is too soft it will dissolve too quickly and become too mushy. The desired outcome is achieved by combining hard and soft oils 3.   Cleansing  –  This is how well the acid cleans. Any soap will clean relatively well however some soaps will be better than others. 4.   Fluffy Lather  –  This is how fluffy the lather created by the soap is. A fluffy lather is thick and bubbly but will wash away easily so is not desirable 5.   Stable Lather  –  A bar of soap with a stable lather has very little substance but is harder to wash away. A balanced lather with be both fluffy and stable 6.   Skin Care  –  How beneficial the soap is to the skin. This is judged in terms of nourshing vitamins, mildness and moisturizing abilities. For the recipe in this guide you are using 3 different oils. These oils when combined will produce a soap with desirable qualities. Acid SAP Hard/Soft Cleansing Fluffy Lather Stable Lather Skin Care Avocado Oil 133.7 Soft Fair Yes No Very good Coconut Oil 191.1 Hard Very good Yes No Fair Castor Oil 128.6 Soft Fair Yes Yes Good Olive Oil 125.3 Soft Good No No Good Palm Oil 142 Hard Very good No Yes Fair Peanut Oil 137 Soft Fair No Yes Good Soybean Oil 135.9 Soft Good No Yes Fair Sweet almond Oil 137.3 Soft Good No Yes Very good Jojoba Oil 69.5 Soft Fair No Yes Good Kukui Nut Oil 135.5 Soft Good No Yes Good Lard 138.7 Hard Good No Yes Fair Tallow 140.5 Hard Good No Yes Fair
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