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Community water management: the key to unlocking the production potential of the polder ecosystems in Bangaldesh

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By Manoranjan Mondal, Elizabeth Humphreys, TP Tuong Revitalizing the Ganges Coastal Zone Conference 21-23 October 2014, Dhaka, Bangladesh http://waterandfood.org/ganges-conference/
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  • 1. Community  water  management:  The  key   to  unlocking  the  produc7on  poten7al  of   the  polder  ecosystems  in  Bangladesh     Manoranjan  Mondal     Elizabeth  Humphreys   T  P  Tuong   SCL  
  • 2. M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D   J   F   M   A   M   J            T.  Aman  (140-­‐160  d)                    Rabi  (130-­‐140  d)           Deep  flooding  at  the  beginning  of   rainy  season  constrains  the   establishment  of  aman  rice  and   adop6on  of  modern  HYV  rice   Prolonged  water  logging  at   the  end  of  rainy  season   delay  establishment    and   risky  harvest  of  rabi  crop   Beginning  of  cyclone  period   Crop  &  water  management-­‐causes  of  low  produc6vity   0   10   20   30   40   End-­‐Jan   Mid-­‐Feb   End-­‐Feb   Mid-­‐Mar   End-­‐Mar   Mid-­‐Apr   End-­‐Apr   Mid-­‐May   End-­‐May   Soil  moisture  (%)   PWP   FC  
  • 3. Sesame  seeds  were  broadcast  during  14-­‐28  February  2013  
  • 4. Damaged  sesame  field  in  pilot  watershed  on  25  May  2013  
  • 5. Major  Ac6vi6es  
  • 6. Selec7on  of  the  water  management  unit   6   Sluice   gate  
  • 7. River Sluice gate Road Rural   road Canal (khal) Drainage   canal Outlet 6  ha  pilot  water  management  unit  on  polder  30   7   •  Obtain  the  agreement  to  create  a   hydrologically  separate  watershed    &   operate  the  sluice  gate  systema6cally    
  • 8. Construction of drainage outlet and drainage canals •  Constructed  internal   drains/bunds  to   separate    high  and   low  land.   •  Constructed  drains   along  the  perimeter   of  the  watershed.   •  Constructed   drainage  outlet  .        
  • 9. •  Obtained  the  agreement   of  the  farmers  to  grow   –  HYV  rice     –  High  value  and   tradi7onal  rabi  crops    in  the  watershed  area   •  Provided  seed  &  training   in  recommended   management  for  rice  and   rabi  crops   •  Provided  year-­‐round   coaching         What  we  have  done  to  improve  produc7vity  of  coastal  BD?   9  
  • 10. Major  Achievements  
  • 11. Rice  submerged  twice  in  2012  
  • 12. •  Farmers  operated  the  sluice  gate  systema6cally  to   quickly  drain  out  excess  water  during  the  rainy  season   •  BUT  couldn’t  drain  on  6me  for  rabi  establishment   because  of  late  maturing  tradi6onal  varie6es     Drainage  during  aman  season  
  • 13. 13   Tradi7onal  varie7es  mature  late  (photoperiod  sensi7ve)   HYV  –  ready   for  harvest   Tradi7onal  (local)  
  • 14. 0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   160   180   200   220   240   Rainfall  &  Water  depth  (mm)   Target  drainage  6me  –  but  irriga6on!   because    local  variety  late  maturing   Transplan6ng   Surface  water  gone  but   weather  cold,  foggy,  soil   too  wet  for  6llage   Late  drainage  at  the  end  of  wet  season     soil  too  wet  for  early  rabi  crop  establishment  
  • 15. Sunflower  established  on  1st  January  2013,  harvested  before   cyclone  (yield  =  1.5  t/ha)    
  • 16. Maize  established  on  24  February  2013  was  in  late  grain   filling  at  6me  of  rains  &  farmer  harvested  5  t/ha  (~  1/2  fer6liser   rate!)  
  • 17. Rainfall  at  Kismat  Fultola,  Ba7aghata,  Khulna   Rabi  season  2012-­‐13     0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   1-­‐Dec   1-­‐Jan   1-­‐Feb   1-­‐Mar   1-­‐Apr   1-­‐May   1-­‐Jun   Rainfall  (mm)  
  • 18. Damaged  Sesame  field  in  pilot  watershed    
  • 19. Damaged  mungbean  field  in  pilot  watershed  
  • 20. Damaged  sunflower  field  in  pilot  watershed  on  31  May  2013  
  • 21. HYV  Rice   (Recommended  mngt) Traditional  +  HYV  Rice   (Farmers’  mngt) Stocked  FISH  in  6  ha  – both  areas (Tilapia,   Mola) Aman  2013:  Selected  1  ha  sub-­‐pilot   21  
  • 22. Aman  Rice  in  2013:  ~  5-­‐6  t/ha  from  HYV  
  • 23. Early  establishment  of  rabi  crops  in   2013-­‐14  at  Kismat  Fultola,  Khulna    
  • 24. Wheat  in  pilot  watershed  at  Kismat  Fultola,   Ba6aghata,  Khulna,  Rabi  season  2012-­‐13  
  • 25. Good  growth  of  early  established  sunflower  in   rabi  season  2013-­‐14  
  • 26. Yield  of  Maize  and  Sunflower  at  Kismat  Fultola,   Ba6aghata,  Khulna,  Rabi  season  2013-­‐14   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   Maize   Sunflower   Yield  (t/ha)  
  • 27. Rainfall  at  Kismat  Fultola,  Ba7aghata,  Khulna,     Rabi  season  2013-­‐14   0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   1-­‐Dec   1-­‐Jan   1-­‐Feb   1-­‐Mar   1-­‐Apr   1-­‐May   1-­‐Jun   Rainfall  (mm)  
  • 28. Poor  growth  of  late  established  sesame  due  to  lack  of  soil   moisture  and  rainfall  in  rabi  season  2013-­‐14  
  • 29. Challenges  
  • 30. •  Soil  drying   •  Tillage  equipments   •  Soil  cracking   •  Fer6lizer  applica6on  –  N  topdressing   •  Water  quality   None  address  produc7on  issues  with  WUA??       Major  Challenges  
  • 31. Soil  drying  is  a  major  problem:   Perched  WT  is  high,  low  EV,  slow  internal  drainage   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   Soil  moisture  (%)   PWP   Field  Capacity  
  • 32. •  Land  was  ready  for  plowing  in  mid-­‐February  2013   •  But     –  Small  tractor  owners  increased  price  (x2)  of  6llage   when  they  knew  the  farmers  wanted  to  prepare   the  land  early  &  quickly.   –  Farmers  had  to  wait  for  more  than  a  week  for  big   tractor  to  come  down  from  further  north  (Jessore)   where  agriculture  is  intensified  for  land   prepara6on.   Tillage  for  rabi  crop  cul7va7on  
  • 33. No  7ll  seems  good,  but  soil  cracked  -­‐  damaged  roots  and   ineffec7ve  N  topdressing  
  • 34. 0   5   10   15   20   25   Water  Salinity  (dS/m)   Saline  irriga7on  water   Canal  water  EC  at  Kismalultola,  Khulna  
  • 35. Concluding  Remarks   •  An  individual  cannot  successfully  modify  their   cropping  system  schedule  and  adopt  improved   agricultural  technologies  in  coastal  polders  due  to   the  prevailing  hydrology.         •  Requires  community  coordina6on  at  a  range  of   scales  –  within  small  hydrological  units,  within  a  sub-­‐ polder,  and  at  the  sub-­‐polder  scale.     – Many  considered  the  catchment  is  hydraulically   separated   – In  reality  it  is  not  in  polders  
  • 36. Concluding  Remarks   •  Further  engagement  with  polder  communi6es  is   needed  to  determine     – how  to  empower  them  with  the  ability  to  adopt   improved  cropping  systems  selected  by  them   from  the  suite  of  available  op6ons     – how  to  address  social  and  environmental   challenges  for  higher  produc6vity  and  farm   income  .  
  • 37. THANK  YOU             SCL  
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