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Competency Gaps Among Geography Teachers in the Teaching of Geography Mapwork in Secondary Schools in Kogi State

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  Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org   ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!! (#nline   $ol.5% No.25% 2&1' '1 Competency Gaps among Geography Teachers in the Teaching of Geography Mapwork in Secondary Schools in Kogi State Professor Sauel )go*ie E*eudu% #+i,% inus ta*i ni/ersit0 of Nigeria% Nsua saago*0a,oo.co  Abstract ,is stud0 was aied to identif0 t,e copetenc0 gaps aong geograp,0 teac,ers in teac,ing apwor in 4ogi State secondar0 sc,ools. ,e stud0 was carried out in Ida,% eina and )npa Education 6ones of 4ogi State and it in/ol/ed 12& geograp,0 teac,ers in all t,e 18 secondar0 sc,ools in t,e *ones. ,e stud0 was guided 90 si: researc, ;uestions and two ,0pot,eses. ata was collected t,roug, ;uestionnaire t,at was adinistered to 12& geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e stud0 area. In order to answer t,e researc, ;uestions% weig,ted ean and copetenc0 needed inde: (<NI was eplo0ed in anal0*ing t,e data for t,e copetenc0 cluster ;uestionnaire ites. ,e forulated null ,0pot,eses for t,e stud0 were tested using t,e -test statistics. ,e findings of t,e stud0 re/ealed t,at= (1 t,ere are copetencies needed 90 geograp,0 teac,ers in teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,ools. (2 Soe geograp,0 teac,ers do not possess soe of t,e copetencies needed in teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,ools. (3 ,ere are copetenc0 gaps aong geograp,0 teac,ers t,at need to 9e filled for teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,ool Introduction. ,e de/elopent of an0 en/ironent and societ0 is undertaen 90 persons wit, correct and appropriate nowledge% sills and attitudes as well as coitent to ,ig, /alues. )t t,e secondar0 sc,ool le/el in Nigeria% an0 su9+ects are taug,t wit, t,e ai of pro/iding students wit, 9asic sills and nowledge for self reliance in t,e societ0 or to prepare t,e for furt,er studies. >eograp,0 is one of t,e secondar0 sc,ool su9+ects taug,t at t,e secondar0 sc,ool le/el in Nigeria (?@NA 2&&'. Bar (1 opines t,at education t,at does not include geograp,0 will ,a/e a lot of social cost aong w,ic, include= depri/ation of 0oung students of earl0 awareness of spatial relations,ipsA denial of students t,eir earl0 e:posure to aps and t,eir usesA and it engenders a geograp,ic illiterac0 t,at will last till adult ,ood aong ot,ers. ?unctional geograp,0 education refers to t,e application of geograp,ic nowledge and related sills to  pro9le sol/ing efforts in t,e en/ironent. ,e ac;uisition of professional ;ualification and related sills in >eograp,0 e;uips an indi/idual for self eplo0ent and related 9usiness opportunities. ,is is t,e purpose of geograp,0 education as stated in t,e National Polic0 on Education w,ic, includes aong ot,er t,ings t,e ac;uisition of appropriate sills and de/elopent of ental% p,0sical and social a9ilities and copetencies re;uired 90 an indi/idual to contri9ute to t,e de/elopent of t,e societ0 (?@NA 2&&'. In consideration of t,e iportance of geograp,0% Nigerian Educational @esearc, and e/elopent <ouncil (NE@< produced a new geograp,0 curriculu to ensure continuit0 and flow of t,ees% topics% e:perience fro senior secondar0 sc,ool one to senior secondar0 sc,ool t,ree le/els (NE@<%2&&7% 9efore w,ic, t,e Junior Secondar0 Sc,ool Social Studies is e:pected to ,a/e laid t,e necessar0 foundation. )t t,e senior secondar0 sc,ool education le/el% t,e geograp,0 curriculu coprises of P,0sical% Buan% @egional and ap reading coponents. )ong t,e different coponents of geograp,0% apwor stands out /er0 significantl0. )ccording to Sara,% 2&&1A aps are not t,e w,ole of geograp,0% 9ut t,ere can 9e no geograp,0 wit,out t,eA Barts,orne (13 states t,at t,e use of aps in geograp,ic wors is so iportant t,at it sees fair to suggest t,at if t,e pro9le cannot 9e studied fundaentall0 90 aps% t,en it is ;uestiona9le w,et,er or not it is wit,in t,e field of geograp,0. Baggett (1! e:pressed t,e sae sentient e/en ore directl0 and succinctl0 t,at geograp,0 is art of ap a9le. #foata (2&&8 opines t,at aps aid t,e ac,ie/eent of o9+ecti/es of geograp,0 C as t,e ap is t,e distincti/e tool of t,e geograp,er. )ll t,ese are pointers to t,e fact t,at well nown geograp,ers often define geograp,0 around aps and ap use. Daps are t,erefore /er0 iportant in senior secondar0 sc,ool >eograp,0. 4nowledge% Sills and copetencies ac;uired in ap associated teac,inglearning facilitate effecti/e teac,ing and learning of ot,er aspects of senior secondar0 sc,ool geograp,0. It is e;uall0 wit, aps t,at spatial relation and spatial fors can  9est 9een seen and anal0sed. It also facilitates t,e understanding of >lo9al Positioning Satellite (>PS and >lo9al Inforation S0ste (>IS 9ased s0stes w,ic, are t,e odern na/igational tec,nologies t,at appear in our e/er0da0 life (Figgleswort,% 2&&3. ,ese tec,nologies are e0 researc, and counication tools for geograp,ers. ,e0 ,a/e significantl0 increased interest in geograp,0 as t,e growing iportance of aps is rising aong geograp,ers% ps0c,ologists and cogniti/e scientists in spatial t,iningA t,e ind of t,ining t,at under  pins ap reading and interpretation (Sara,% 2&&1. nfortunatel0% apwor ,as posed a great t,reat to effecti/e geograp,0 education in secondar0 sc,ools  Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org   ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!! (#nline   $ol.5% No.25% 2&1' '2 and weaened t,e orale and ent,usias of students of >eograp,0% t,us leading to ,ig, rate of poor  perforance of >eograp,0 in Senior Secondar0 Sc,ool <ertificate E:ainations for 0ears now. )ssessent of studentsG nowledge% indicate t,at students are not copetent ap users. ?or instance% anal0sis of t,e National )ssessent of Educational Progress (N)EPA 2&&1 geograp,0 e:a re/eal t,at at e/er0 le/el% test ites t,at re;uired students to use and interpret aps were ost c,allenging as t,e ost difficult ites re;uired ap interpretation% construction or use. )lso% F)E< c,ief e:ainers reports (2&&'% 2&&5% 2&& and 2&1& s,ow t,at ;uestions on ap reading aspect of geograp,0 were poorl0 attended 90 t,e candidates. )ccording to t,e reports% t,e candidates laced nowledge of drawing of cross profile and interpretation of apsA ost candidates could neit,er draw an annotated cross profile nor deterine inter-/isi9ilit0 9etween relief and transportation networ or gi/e reasons for t,e sparse population of t,e apped areas. ,e reports also e:plained t,at t,e consistent poor apwor e:,i9ition 90 candidates ,as resulted to t,eir poor grades in geograp,0. ,e reports attri9uted t,ese poor grades of t,e candidates aong ot,er t,ings to incopetenc0 and non-;ualification of geograp,0 teac,ers. F)E<A (2&&' o9ser/es t,at social studies graduates% geologists and #NBN graduates in own and @egional Planning are engaged to teac, geograp,0 in secondar0 sc,ools. ,is% to researc,erGs point of /iew could cause copetenc0 gaps aong geograp,0 apwor teac,ers. )ccording to Nnawugwu (2&1&% t,ere are se/eral areas of sills in apwor. ,ese include= 9asic sills= (w,ic, in/ol/e la9eling and annotation of diagras% aps% grap,s% setc,es etc% drawing setc,es fro  p,otograp,s and in t,e field% use and interpretation of aerial  o9li;ue and satellite p,otograp,s of rural  or ur9an landscapesA cartograp,ic (ap sill= (sills in recogni*ing and descri9ing distri9utions and patterns of 9ot, ,uan and p,0sical features )lso t,e drawing% la9eling% understanding and interpretation of setc, aps are re;uired. #t,ers include ordinance sur/e0 ap reading sillsA grap,ical sills (sills to construct line% 9ar% scatter grap,s% and pie diagras% copletion of a /ariet0 of grap,s and aps including c,oroplet,% isoline and  proportional s09ols. Interpretation of a /ariet0 of grap,s including t,ose located on aps and topological diagras. In translating t,ese sills re;uireent into t,e conte:t of t,e classroo% teac,ers of geograp,0 s,ould deonstrate t,eir copetencies in nowledge and sills w,ile teac,ing apwor. #laitan% )lari9e and Nwo9u (2&& note t,at w,en a teac,er of a su9+ect is una9le to deonstrate copetencies w,ile ipleenting t,e su9+ect curriculu% to a le/el t,at is accepta9le% t,en t,e teac,er lacs copetence and re;uires ipro/eent in t,at regard. ,e geograp,0 teac,er w,o lacs copetence in t,e teac,ing of apwor ,as a gap to 9e filled for effecti/e teac,ing and learning of apwor in geograp,0. ,e gap is t,e difference 9etween t,e tas t,e teac,er is e:pected to perfor and t,e le/el to w,ic, t,e teac,er could perfor t,e tas in teac,ing apwor% w,ic, ot,erwise is t,e copetenc0 gap. <ould t,e copetenc0 gaps aong geograp,0 teac,ers 9e identified in t,e teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,oolsH urpose of the Study ,e general purpose of t,e stud0 is to deterine t,e copetenc0 gaps aong geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,ools in 4ogi State. Specificall0% t,e stud0 intends to= 1. Identif0 t,e copetencies needed 90 geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e teac,ing of geograp,0 apwor in secondar0 sc,ools. 2. deterine t,e copetencies possessed 90 geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e teac,ing of geograp,0 apwor in secondar0 sc,ools. 3. find out t,e copetenc0 gaps t,at geograp,0 teac,ers need to fill in t,e teac,ing of geograp,0 apwor in secondar0 sc,ools. !esearch uestions ,e following researc, ;uestions guided t,e stud0= 1.   F,at are t,e copetencies needed 90 teac,ers in t,e teac,ing of geograp,0 apwor in secondar0 sc,oolsH 2.   F,at are t,e copetencies possessed 90 geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,oolsH 3.   F,at are t,e copetenc0 gaps aong geograp,0 teac,ers t,at need to 9e filled in t,e teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,oolsH #esign of the Study ,e design of t,e stud0 is an e/aluati/e design. E/aluati/e design according to )li% ). (2&&8 uses saple of an in/estigation to e:plain w,at is in e:istence or non- e:istent on t,e present status of p,enoena  9eing in/estigated. ,e design is suita9le for t,e stud0 9ecause t,e copetencies needed and possessed 90 geograp,0 teac,ers are in/estigated to s,ow copetenc0 gaps to 9e filled for effecti/e teac,ing of geograp,0  Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org   ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!! (#nline   $ol.5% No.25% 2&1' '3 apwor in secondar0 sc,ools. Area of the Study  ,e stud0 was carried out in t,ree Education 6ones of 4ogi State (Ida,% eina and )npa Education 6ones. In Ida, Education 6one% t,ere are four local go/ernent areas (Ida,% I9a+i% Igalaela#dolu and #fu ocal >o/ernent )reas. In eina Education 6one% t,ere are two ocal >o/ernent )reas (eina and assa ocal >o/ernent )reas. )nd in )npa Education 6one t,ere t,ree ocal >o/ernent )reas ()npa% #ala and #laa9oro ocal >o/ernent )reas. ,e *ones coprise of predoinantl0 ci/il ser/ants% a+orit0 of w,ic, are priar0 and secondar0 sc,ool teac,ers. ,e c,oice of t,e area of stud0 is due to t,e recorded consistent poor  perforances of students in geograp,0 apwor in t,e F)S<NE<# E:aniations in t,e secondar0   sc,ools in t,e *ones. opulation of the Study ,e target population of t,e stud0 is all t,e senior secondar0 sc,ool geograp,0 teac,ers in Ida,% eina and )npa Education 6ones of 4ogi State. )/aila9le records s,ow t,at t,ere are 2&5 geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e 6ones (Dinistr0 of Education% Ida,% eina and )npa 6onal #ffices% 2&12. ,e estiated population of students offering geograp,0 at t,e senior secondar0 sc,ool le/el is 3%5& students in t,e 15 secondar0 sc,ools in t,e *ones. ,e c,oice of geograp,0 teac,ers as t,e population of t,e stud0 is t,e fact t,at t,e0 will pro/ide t,e responses to t,e ;uestionnaire in t,e area of copetences possessed or not possessed 90 t,e. Sample and Sampling Techni$ue ,e representati/e saple of 12& geograp,0 teac,ers was randol0 selected fro t,e secondar0 sc,ools in t,e stud0 area. ) stratified rando sapling was used to select respondents fro all t,e secondar0 sc,ools in t,e stud0 area. Instrument for #ata Collection ,e researc,er de/eloped instruent w,ic, was used in data collection. It is titled <opetenc0 >aps aong >eograp,0 eac,ers in Dap @eading (<>>D@K ,e instruent was de/eloped 90 identif0ing t,e sills re;uired in ap reading and t,en constructing ites t,at can indicate t,e teac,ers possession or non-  possession of copetencies in teac,ing t,e sills identified in literature. ,e teac,ers were re;uired to indicate t,eir copetenc0non-copetenc0 le/els in iparting t,e stated apwor sills on a '-point liert t0pe scale of $er0 Big,l0 Possessed% Possessed% Not Possessed and Not $er0 Slig,tl0 Possessed wit, t,e corresponding /alue of '% 3% 2 and 1 respecti/el0. )lso% t,e needed response categor0 ,as a rating scale of $er0 Big,l0 Needed ('  points% Needed (3 points% Not Needed (2 points and Not $er0 Slig,tl0 Needed (1 point. %alidation of the Instrument ,e de/eloped instruent was /alidated 90 t,ree science education specialists in t,e epartents of Science Education and Social Science Education% ni/ersit0 of Nigeria% Nsua. wo of t,e are specialists in easureent and e/aluation and one in geograp,0 education. ,e researc, topic% purpose of t,e stud0 and researc, ;uestions and t,e constructed instruent were gi/en to t,e for scrutin0. ,e0 were re;uired to e:aine t,e instruent in ters of le/el of language of e:pression% a9iguit0% duplication of stateent rele/ance of ites to researc, purpose and researc, ;uestions and t,e ade;uac0 of t,e ites aong ot,ers. ,e coents and suggestions of t,e /alidates were used in producing t,e final cop0 of t,e instruent for data collection. !eliability of the Instrument ,e relia9ilit0 of t,e instruent was deterined using <ron9ac,Gs <oefficient alp,a relia9ilit0 et,od. went0 copies of t,e instruent were adinistered on twent0 geograp,0 teac,ers in #ene Education 6one of 4ogi State w,ic, is outside t,e stud0 area. ,eir scores on needed and possessed copetencies were o9tained. ,e differences in t,e needed and possessed copetencies w,ic, were t,e copetenc0 gaps aong t,e geograp,0 teac,ers were noted. ,e scores were split in to two e;ual ,alf. ,e split ,alf scores of t,e instruent were correlated to find t,e coefficient of internal consistenc0 and a relia9ilit0 coefficient of &.! was o9tained. Method of #ata Collection ,e instruent was adinistered directl0 90 t,e researc,er and t,ree researc, assistants to geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e area of stud0. ,e teac,ers fro eac, sc,ool in t,e area of stud0 were re;uired to coplete t,e ;uestionnaire on t,e spot% and it was collected 9ac fro t,e 90 eit,er t,e researc,er or ,is researc, assistants. ,is ensured a ,ig, rate of return of t,e copies of t,e ;uestionnaire.  Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org   ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!! (#nline   $ol.5% No.25% 2&1' '' Method of #ata Analysis Feig,ted )/erage and copetence needed inde: (<NI were eplo0ed in anal0*ing t,e data fro t,e copetenc0 cluster ;uestionnaire ites in order to answer t,e researc, ;uestions. ,e copetencies needed were deterined as follows= ,e ean ( n of t,e needed categor0 was deterined for eac, ite. ,e ean ( p of t,e possessed categor0 was deterined for eac, ite. ,e copetenc0 gaps (<> aong t,e geograp,0 apwor teac,ers were also deterined 90 finding t,e difference 9etween n and p. ,at is% <>L n- p. F,ere t,e /alue of <> is positi/e (M/e% it eans copetenc0 ipro/eent is needed 9ecause t,e le/el at w,ic, t,e teac,ers are perforing in teac,ing t,e ite is lower t,an w,at is needed. F,ere <> is negati/e (-/e% it eans copetenc0 ipro/eent is not needed 9ecause% t,e teac,ers possess teac,ing copetencies ore t,an w,at is re;uiredA 9ut w,ere <> is *ero (&% it eans copetenc0 ipro/eent is also not needed 9ecause t,e le/el at w,ic, t,e teac,ers are teac,ing geograp,0 apwor is e;ual to t,e le/el t,at is needed. In aing decisions on t,e needed and possessed copetencies 90 t,e geograp,0 teac,ers% w,ere t,e ean response /alue falls 9etween 1-1.'% it is interpreted as Not $er0 Slig,tl0 Needed or Not $er0 Slig,tl0 PossessedA w,ere t,e ean response falls 9etween 1.5&-2.'% it is interpreted as Not Needed or Not Possessed. )lso% w,ere t,e ean response falls 9etween 2.5&- 3.'% it is interpreted as Needed or Possessed and w,ere t,e ean /alue falls 9etween 3.5&-'.&&% it is interpreted as $er0 Big,l0 Needed or $er0 Big,l0 Possessed as t,e case a0 9e. !esults ,is c,apter was presented according to t,e researc, ;uestions and t,e ,0pot,eses t,at guided t,e stud0. !esearch uestion &ne' F,at are t,e copetencies needed 90 geograp,0 teac,ers in t,e teac,ing of apwor in secondar0 sc,oolsH
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