Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultry manure and its effects on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and soil properties

Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultry manure and its effects on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and soil properties
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  Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultrymanure and its effects on faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) growthand soil properties Magdi T. Abdelhamid * , Takatsugu Horiuchi, Shinya Oba The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan Received 29 January 2003; received in revised form 14 October 2003; accepted 20 October 2003 Abstract Composting of rice straw with poultry manure and oilseed rape cake and its effects on growth and yield of faba bean and soilproperties was studied in pot experiments at Gifu University, Japan in 2001/2002. The composts reached maturity in 90 days,were rich in organic matter and mineral nutrients, had a high level of stability, and no phytotoxicity. The addition of compost(20–200 gpot À 1 ) improved selected soil chemical (increased total N, total C and CEC), physical (decreased particle density) andbiological (increased soil respiration rate) properties. Application of composts at a rate of 20 gpot À 1 significantly increasedgrowth, yield, yield components and total crude protein of faba bean plants. The benefit of this compost without chemicalfertilizer demonstrated the validity and possibility of sustainable agronomic performance of faba bean using locally availablerecycled organic materials. Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Compost; Faba bean; Growth; Nitrogen dynamics; Nutrition; Rice straw; Yield 1. Introduction Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is an important crop in manyareas of the world, and yields a large amount of ricestraw residue. A major portion of this agricultural wasteis disposed by burning or is mulched in rice fields.However, an attractive alternative usage of rice straw iscomposting. The composting process has been definedas the biological degradation of organic constituents inwastes under controlled conditions (Golueke, 1972). Theprocess has many advantages including sanitation, massand bulk reduction, and decrease of carbon (C) tonitrogen (N) ratio (C/N). The stabilized compost pro-duced should benefit plant growth and be suitable foragricultural applications (Campbell et al., 1995). Ricestraw is rich in C and poor in N. Its C/N can vary from50 to 150, which limits the composting process. Thishigh C/N can be decreased by increasing the basal Ncontent of rice straw by adding oilseed rape cake andpoultry manure, which are readily available in bothEgypt and Japan. Rashid et al. (2001) compared mix-tures of rice straw and N materials (cow dung+soybeanplants) at ratios ranging from 70% to 100% rice straw.The mixture containing 70% rice straw produced themost suitable compost in terms of maturity and nutri-ents.Faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) is the most important grainlegume in Egypt. It serves as an important source of protein in the human diet, especially for those with lowincome. In addition, faba bean plants improve the fer-tility of the soil via providing a substantial input of N 2 fixation. Thus, faba bean cultivation under the appli-cation of compost has the potential to increase cropproduction and soil sustainability.On the other hand, the importance of compost tocrop productivity has been recognized widely as analternative nutrient source, but the mechanism of itsfunction has not been elucidated fully. Hence, thepresent study has been initiated to (1) find out the effi-cient and rational combination of composting of ricestraw with poultry manure and oilseed rape cake, (2)evaluate the comparative effectiveness of four kinds of rice straw compost on growth and yield of faba bean * Corresponding author. Tel.: +81-58-2932846; fax: +81-58-2932851. E-mail address: Abdelhamid).0960-8524/$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2003.10.012Bioresource Technology 93 (2004) 183–189  plants, and (3) assess the properties of soil supplied bydifferent concentrations of rice straw compost. 2. Methods  2.1. Composting  Four mixtures for composting were prepared usingthree different organic materials and different ratios(Table 1). Rice straw was obtained from a paddy field atthe experimental farm at Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.Rice straw was air dried and cut into small pieces, about5–15 mm in length. Oilseed rape cake was obtained froma local market. Poultry manure was obtained fromOku Mikawa chicken farm, near Gifu, Japan. Selectedcharacteristics of the raw materials used are presented inTable 2. Five kilograms of three organic materials weremixed for all compost treatments with three replications.The mixtures were decomposed in a polyvinyl house inplastic containers of size 35 · 50 · 30 cm (W · L · H),respectively. Moisture content was maintained at 50– 60% throughout the active composting period by fre-quent checking with a Hydrosense moisture meter(Campbell Scientific, Inc., USA). The mixtures wereturned at three day intervals to maintain porosity. Atthe end of the composting process, samples were takenfor analysis.  2.2. Pot experiments Three experiments were conducted simultaneouslyunder polyvinyl house conditions at Gifu University,Japan (35 ° 27 00 N, 136 ° 46 00 E). The soils used for theseexperiments were clay loam and sandy loam. The clayloam soil is an Ando soil (developed from volcanic ash)and has a very high content of humified organic matter.It was collected from 0 to 20 cm depth of the plow layerof a non-cultivated field at Gifu University. The sandyloam soil is a Brown lowland soil and contains a mod-erate amount of organic matter (Table 3). It was col-lected from near the Nagara River in Gifu. Othercharacteristics of the soils are shown in Table 3. AJapanese large seeded faba bean variety with latematurity (Ryousai-issun) and an Egyptian small seededvariety with early maturity (Assiut 8) were used in theexperiments. Faba bean seeds were sown in plastic pots(500 g air dried soil capacity) on November 6, 2001. Potswith a surface area of 0.02 m 2 were filled with 2.2 and3.1 kg of dried and sieved clay loam and sandy loamsoils, respectively. One seedling (30-day-old of fababean) was transplanted into the center of each pot. Theexperiment was conducted until May 15, 2002. Thecompost was applied two weeks before transplantingand mixed thoroughly with the soil of each pot. The pots Table 1Mixture of used organic raw materials for composting and treatments of experiments 1 and 2Treatments Abbreviation Composting: 70% rice straw+20% poultry manure+10% oilseed rape cake M  1 60% rice straw+20% poultry manure+20% oilseed rape cake M  2 50% rice straw+20% poultry manure+30% oilseed rape cake M  3 40% rice straw+30% poultry manure+30% oilseed rape cake M  4 Experiment 1: Non-amended clay loam soil was considered as control 0Soil mixed with compost at rate of 20 gpot À 1 (10 tha À 1 ) 20Soil mixed with compost at rate of 40 gpot À 1 (20 tha À 1 ) 40Soil mixed with compost at rate of 80 gpot À 1 (40 tha À 1 ) 80Soil mixed with compost at rate of 120 gpot À 1 (60 tha À 1 ) 120Soil mixed with compost at rate of 200 gpot À 1 (100 tha À 1 ) 200 Experiment 2: Non-amended sandy loam soil was considered as control 0Soil mixed with compost at rate of 20 gpot À 1 (10 tha À 1 ) 20Soil mixed with compost at rate of 40 gpot À 1 (20 tha À 1 ) 40Table 2Some properties of rice straw, oilseed rape cake and poultry manureused as raw materials for compostingCharacteristic Rice straw Oilseed rapecakePoultrymanurepH (H 2 O) 7.2 5.9 7.93EC (dSm À 1 ) 3.58 2.05 2.38Total N (%) 0.64 7.13 4.35Total C (%) 39.2 46.1 35.0C/N 61.3 6.5 8.0P (gkg À 1 ) 1.1 19.9 3.1Na (mgkg À 1 ) 366 293 222Mg (mgkg À 1 ) 472 330 233Ca (mgkg À 1 ) 262 1040 246K (mgkg À 1 ) 2628 2606 1456Volatile solids (%) 84.6 90.5 87.4CEC (cmol c kg À 1 ) 36.2 53.7 63.4NH 4 -N (mgkg À 1 ) 18 217 733184 M.T. Abdelhamid et al. / Bioresource Technology 93 (2004) 183–189  were kept weed-free and maintained in an optimum soilmoisture regime throughout the experiment.  2.2.1. Experiment 1: Effect of compost on soil propertiesand faba bean yield  Faba bean cv. Ryousai-issun was grown as describedabove in the clay loam soil amended with six levels of compost M  4 in a randomized complete block design withthree replicates (Table 1).  2.2.2. Experiment 2: Effect of compost on faba bean growth and nitrogen dynamics Two cultivars (Ryousai-issun and Assiut 8) weregrown in the sandy loam soil in pots amended with threelevels of compost (Table 1). The pots were arranged in arandomized complete block design with four replicates.Plants were harvested twice at 40 and 75 days aftertransplanting (DAT). At each time, plants of 24 potswere excised at ground level for separation into theabove ground (leaves, stems and reproductive organs)and the below ground portion (roots). To remove soilparticles and plant debris from the root surface, thebelow ground portion was washed carefully under run-ning tap water. Leaf area was measured using an auto-matic area meter (Hayashi Denkoh Co. Ltd., Tokyo).Leaves, stems, reproductive organs and roots were oven-dried at 70 ° C for 72 h and their dry weights weremeasured. The oven dried leaves, stems, reproductiveorgans and roots were ground to pass a 0.5 mm sieve fordetermination of N content. Total N was measuredusing a CN analyzer, Sumigraph Model NC-800, Shi-madzu Co. Ltd., Japan. The relative growth rate (RGR)was calculated according to Hunt (1982). The N relativeuptake rate (RUR) was calculated according to Kpakpoet al. (1997). Chlorophyll content of the fourth upper-most fully expanded leaf of faba bean was measurednon-destructively using the Minolta SPAD-502 meter.Soluble carbohydrates of faba bean leaves at 75 DATwere determined using a phenol sulphuric acid assay(Dubois et al., 1956).  2.2.3. Experiment 3: Effect of compost on seed yield and  yield components Two kinds of soils (sandy loam lower in organicmatter and clay loam higher in organic matter), twocultivars of faba bean (Ryousai-issun and Assiut 8), andfive compost treatments were used in this experiment.The pots were arranged in a split plot design with threereplicates, with soils as main plots and compost treat-ments as split plots. Treatments included M  1 , M  2 , M  3 , M  4 (Table 1) and a control (no compost applied). The en-riched compost was applied at the rate of 20 gpot À 1 .Total crude protein of the faba bean seed (TCP %) wascalculated as total N % · 6.25. Ash content was deter-mined according to Navarro et al. (1993).  2.3. Chemical and physical analyses EC, pH were measured in the aqueous extracts of ricestraw, oilseed rape cake, poultry manure and compost ina solid:distilled water of 1:20 (w/v dry weight basis).Germination bioassay for compost with radish seedswas determined in the compost:distilled water (1:20 w/v)extract. EC and pH of soil were measured in 1:4 mixtureof soil and distilled water. EC was determined using aconductivity meter (CM-20S), and pH using a HORIBA(F-14) pH meter. The germination index (inversely re-lated to the presence of phytotoxic substances in thecompost) was calculated according to Zucconi et al.(1985). Total N and C were measured using a CNanalyzer, Sumigraph Model NC-800, Shimadzu Cor-poration, Japan. The exchangeable cations (Na þ , Ca þþ ,Mg þþ , K þ ) were measured using a Polarized ZeemanAtomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HITACHI180-60) after extraction in 1 N ammonium acetate (pH7.0). NH þ 4 -N, NO À 3 -N, NO À 2 -N, Cl À and SO ÀÀ 4 weremeasured by Ion Chromatography, Shimadzu Corpo-ration, Japan. Phosphate was determined colorimetri-cally (HITACHI U-1000) according to Bray and Kurtz(1945). The concentration of organic matter (volatilesolids) was taken as the gravimetric loss-on-ignitionproduced by ashing the samples (previously dried in anoven at 105 ° C until a constant weight was reached) in amuffle furnace for 24 h at 430 ° C (Navarro et al., 1993).Optical density at 465 nm (  E  4 ) and the extinction ratiobetween 465 and 665 nm (  E  4 =  E  6 ) were determined bydissolving the soil and compost in 0.05 N NaHCO 3 Table 3Some characteristics of soils used in the experimentsCharacteristic Clay loam SandyloamSand (%) a 41.4 40.7Silt (%) a 17.2 32.6Clay (%) a 41.4 26.8pH (H 2 O) 4.94 5.29EC (dSm À 1 ) 0.074 0.025Total N (mgg À 1 ) 4.44 0.58Total C (mgg À 1 ) 92.3 5.85C/N 20.79 10.08P (mgkg À 1 ) 39.8 90.5Soluble cations (mgkg À 1 )Na þ 25.2 30.5Ca þþ 125.7 28.6Mg þþ 14.1 8.9K þ 25.7 40.6Soluble anions (mgkg À 1 )HCO À 3 67.6 57.2Cl À 32 18SO ÀÀ 4 91.2 33.5Organic matter (%) 24.88 2.35CEC (cmol c kg À 1 ) 28.25 2.97Particle density (gcm À 3 ) 2.15 2.54 a Source: Ph.D. thesis (1993), Gifu University. M.T. Abdelhamid et al. / Bioresource Technology 93 (2004) 183–189 185  solution and the absorbance measured using Spectro-photometer (HITACHI U-1000) at wavelengths of 465and 665 nm for humic acid and fulvic acid, respec-tively according to Chen et al. (1977). The magnitude of the E  4 =  E  6 is related to the degree of condensation of thearomatic nucleus of humus, indicating its maturity. Thecation exchange capacity (CEC) was measured at pH 7.0with ammonium acetate (Anderson and Ingram, 1996).The amount of CO 2 evolved from the soil was measuredby the closed chamber method using an infrared gasanalysis (IRGA) at 90 days after transplanting accord-ing to Bekku et al. (1995). Specific gravity for soils wasdetermined by pycnometer method.  2.4. Statistical analysis All data collected for various studies were subjectedtotheanalysisofvarianceappropriatetothedesign. Testof significance of the treatment differences was done onthe basis of  F  -test. The significant differences betweentreatments were compared with the critical difference at5% level of probability by the Duncan’s test. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Composting  The analysis shows that the composts are likely to bea good soil amendment, with high N concentration,moderate salt levels, and an acceptable germination in-dex (Table 4). The total organic C concentration de-clined slightly for all mixtures during composting. Thedecreased content of volatile solids (VS) may be due tothe loss of organic matter through microbial degrada-tion (Table 4). Compost N increased with increasingamounts of oilseed rape cake and poultry manure in thefeedstocks. The increase in total N may have been due tothe net loss of dry mass as the loss of organic C as CO 2 during composting (Viel et al., 1987). Moreover, total Ncan also be increased by the activities of nitrogen-fixingbacteria at the end of the composting process (Bishopand Godfrey, 1983). The C/N is one of the main char-acteristics that describe the composting process. Al-though, the C/N in the solid phase cannot be used as anabsolute indicator of compost maturation due to thelarge variation that is dependent on the starting mate-rials, a value around or below 20 could be consideredsatisfactory (Hirai et al., 1983). The final C/N rangedfrom 13.3 to 8.9 for all mixtures. It was presupposedthat the increase in (  E  4 ) and the decrease in (  E  4 =  E  6 ) arecharacteristic of the formation of humic type substances(Chen et al., 1977). However, no significant differencesamong all mixtures of compost were recorded for E  4 =  E  6 .The CEC values ranged from 63.3 to 77.9 cmolkg À 1 , so,all mixtures showed higher CEC values than the 60cmolkg À 1 described by Harada and Inoko (1980) as anindex of maturity. Germination index (GI) is a biolo-gical method to determine the phytotoxicity in organicsubstrate (Zucconi et al., 1981a). GI values ranged from71.1% to 81.6%. According to Zucconi et al. (1981b), GIvalues greater than 50% indicate a phytotoxin-freecompost. Based on C/N, CEC and GI, it appears that allmixtures reached maturity after 90 days of composting. 3.2. Pot experiments3.2.1. Experiment 1: Effect of compost on soil propertiesand faba bean yield  Compost addition increased pH, EC, OM, TC andTN and decreased particle density with increasing rate(Table 5). Even at the highest rate, EC was suitable forall types of plants. Compost addition decreased the de-gree of condensation of the aromatic humic constituentsas the E  4 =  E  6 increased with increasing compost rate.This may result from dilution of the very stable soilorganic matter with less stable compost. The productionof CO 2 in soil results from the oxidation of soil organicmatter by heterotrophic microorganisms and from rootrespiration. Application of 20 g of compost per pot in-creased soil respiration from 3.8 to 6.3 l molm À 2 s À 1 ,indicating increased microbial activity from compostaddition. Particle density decreased significantly withincreasing compost rates. NH þ 4 -N, and NO À 2 -N in-creased by compost addition with increasing rate until Table 4Selected characteristics of four compost mixtures at beginning and endof composting processProperty Time M  1 M  2 M  3 M  4 pH (H 2 O) Initial 7.3 7.1 7.0 7.1Final 8.7a 1 8.5ab 8.2ab 8.0bEC (dSm À 1 ) Initial 3.19 3.04 2.88 2.76Final 3.62c 3.80b 3.79b 4.29aTN (%) Initial 2.03 2.68 3.33 3.70Final 2.65d 3.23c 3.74b 4.10aTC (%) Initial 39.07 39.76 40.45 40.02Final 35.13c 35.86b 36.50a 36.43abC/N Initial 19.2 14.8 12.1 10.8Final 13.3a 11.1b 9.8c 8.9dVS (%) Initial 86.2 86.8 87.3 87.4Final 70.3b 69.9b 74.2a 74.7aCEC(cmol c kg À 1 )Initial 43.4 45.1 46.9 49.6Final 63.3c 68.4b 74.5a 77.9a  E  4 Final 1.27b 1.14c 1.07c 1.41a  E  4 =  E  6 Final 3.78a 3.82a 4.07a 4.15aGI (%) Final 71.1b 72.6b 76.3ab 81.6aVS ¼ volatile solid, E  4 ¼ extinction at 465 nm. E  4 =  E  6 ¼ extinction ratio465/665 nm (water soluble compost fraction). CEC ¼ cation exchangecapacity (cmol c kg À 1 ), GI ¼ germination index. 1 Means followed by the same letter within a row are not signifi-cantly different using Duncan’s test (  p  < 0 : 05).186 M.T. Abdelhamid et al. / Bioresource Technology 93 (2004) 183–189  80 gpot À 1 , then decreased gradually as compost rateincreased (Table 5). However, NO À 3 -N decreased grad-ually with increasing compost rate. Compost additionincreased CEC, soluble cations (Na þ , Mg þþ , K þ ) andsoluble anions (HCO À 3 , Cl À , SO ÀÀ 4 ) with increasingcompost rate. However, compost addition decreasedCa þþ with increasing compost rate (Tables 5 and 6).The fall in Ca þþ could be explained as the formation of Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 , where application of organic materials tosoils may boost Ca þþ leaching as during decompositionof organic matter there is an increase in CO 2 release andhence also in H þ +HCO À 3 formation in the soil (Mengelet al., 2001). However, Larsen and Widdowson (1968)reported that NO À 3 formation in many soils seems toserve a more important role than in HCO À 3 balancingCa þþ and also Mg þþ in the leaching process.Compost amendments increased seed and dry matteryield of the faba bean plants (Table 7). Plant dry matteryield increased with increasing compost rate, but allrates of compost had equivalent bean yield. This sug-gests that the lowest compost rate is adequate for fababean production. However, 200 gpot À 1 is preferable forachieving the greatest plant biomass production andhighest soil fertility in the long run. It seems likely thatmineral elements released from the decayed compost(greater N availability in the low C/N compost andother nutrients, Table 4) would be closely related to theimproved growth rate and N uptake rate in this exper-iment which is in agreement with Inoko (1984). 3.2.2. Experiment 2: Effect of compost on faba bean growth and N dynamics The compost significantly reduced leaf soluble car-bohydrates, and this reduction coincided with increasingcompost rate for both cultivars (Table 8). Therefore,compost could have favored leaf growth and a new sinkdeveloped which would reduce soluble carbohydrates(Isopp et al., 2000). Compost addition increased SPADreading, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concen-tration (PNC), relative growth rate, and N relative up-take rate with increasing rate (Table 8). This suggeststhat available N increased with compost rate.It is well known that improved plant productivestructure could promote better photosynthetic efficiencyand consequently, improved faba bean yield. Our resultssupported the previous finding by Scarascia-Mugnozzaand De Pace (1979). Evans (1989) reported that thephysiological basis of the link between plant N con-centration and RGR probably lies in the positive rela-tionship between leaf N and photosynthesis. Moreover,Ma et al. (1995) reported that soybean leaf photosyn-thesis rate was consistently correlated with SPAD-502meter readings in 16 genotypes. Our results show a Table 6Soluble ions of clay loam soil at initial and at harvest of faba bean cv.Ryousai-issun as affected by using different levels of compost (  M  4 ) 0,20, 40, 80, 120 and 200 gpot À 1 Treat-mentsSoluble cations (mgkg À 1 ) Soluble anions (mgkg À 1 )Na þ Ca þþ Mg þþ K þ HCO À 3 Cl À SO ÀÀ 4 Initial 25f  1 126a 14d 26f 68d 32f 91c0 19g 88b 10g 15g 61d 19g 51e20 31e 86b 11f 33e 58d 47e 56e40 38d 74c 13e 94d 72d 77d 69d80 55c 70cd 15c 144c 90c 103c 92c120 64b 64cd 16b 280b 188b 133b 102b200 91a 59d 18a 439a 233a 223a 150a 1 See footnote of Table 5.Table 7Seed yield, total dry weight and harvest index of faba bean cv.Ryousai-issun as affected by using different levels of compost (  M  4 ) 0,20, 40, 80, 120 and 200 gpot À 1 Treatments Seed yield/plant (g)Total dry weight/plant (g)Harvestindex (%)0 3.2b 1 16.7d 19b20 5.5a 21.8c 26a40 5.3a 23.1bc 23ab80 5.5a 24.1ab 23ab120 5.1a 23.7abc 21ab200 4.5ab 25.8a 17b 1 See footnote of Table 5.Table 5Clay loam soil properties at initial and at harvest of faba bean cv. Ryousai-issun as affected by using different levels of compost (  M  4 ) 0, 20, 40, 80, 120and 200 gpot À 1 Treat-mentspH(H 2 O)EC OM (%) TC(mgg À 1 )TN(mgg À 1 )NH þ 4 -N(mgkg À 1 )NO À 3 -N(mgkg À 1 )NO À 2 -N(mgkg À 1 )CEC E  4 =  E  6 Particledensity(gcm À 3 )Initial 4.9e 1 0.07f 25e 92c 4.4g 10b 160a 17d 28f 1.76c 2.15a0 4.9e 0.11e 27d 95c 4.6f 6d 142b 22c 30e 1.76c 2.09ab20 4.9e 0.11e 28d 97c 4.9e 7c 124c 30b 32d 1.74c 2.04b40 5.0d 0.15d 28cd 98bc 5.1d 10b 113cd 30b 33d 1.75c 1.96c80 5.1c 0.21c 29c 104b 5.8c 12a 102de 33a 36c 1.79c 1.83d120 5.2b 0.33b 30b 116a 7.0b 10b 90e 24c 39b 1.97b 1.77e200 5.3a 0.48a 32a 120a 7.6a 1e 41f 16d 42a 2.16a 1.69f EC ¼ electrical conductivity (dSm À 1 ), OM ¼ organic matter, TC ¼ total carbon, TN ¼ total nitrogen, CEC ¼ cation exchange capacity (cmol c kg À 1 ),  E  4 =  E  6 ¼ extinction ratio 465/665 nm (water soluble compost fraction). 1 Means followed by a common letter in a column are not significantly different using Duncan’s test (  p  < 0 : 05). M.T. Abdelhamid et al. / Bioresource Technology 93 (2004) 183–189 187
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