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Cost-Effective Three-Dimensional Printing of Visibly Transparent Microchips within Minutes

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Cost-Effective Three-Dimensional Printing of Visibly Transparent Microchips within Minutes
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  Subscriber access provided by UNIV OF TASMANIA Analytical Chemistry is published by the American Chemical Society. 1155 SixteenthStreet N.W., Washington, DC 20036Published by American Chemical Society. Copyright © American Chemical Society.However, no copyright claim is made to srcinal U.S. Government works, or worksproduced by employees of any Commonwealth realm Crown government in the courseof their duties. Article Cost Effective 3D-Printing of Visibly Transparent Microchips within Minutes Aliaa I. Shallan, Petr Smejkal, Monika Corban, Rosanne M Guijt, and Michael C. Breadmore Anal. Chem. , Just Accepted Manuscript  • DOI: 10.1021/ac4041857 • Publication Date (Web): 10 Feb 2014 Downloaded from http://pubs.acs.org on February 16, 2014 Just Accepted “Just Accepted” manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication. They are postedonline prior to technical editing, formatting for publication and author proofing. The American ChemicalSociety provides “Just Accepted” as a free service to the research community to expedite thedissemination of scientific material as soon as possible after acceptance. “Just Accepted” manuscriptsappear in full in PDF format accompanied by an HTML abstract. “Just Accepted” manuscripts have beenfully peer reviewed, but should not be considered the official version of record. They are accessible to allreaders and citable by the Digital Object Identifier (DOI®). “Just Accepted” is an optional service offeredto authors. Therefore, the “Just Accepted” Web site may not include all articles that will be publishedin the journal. After a manuscript is technically edited and formatted, it will be removed from the “JustAccepted” Web site and published as an ASAP article. Note that technical editing may introduce minorchanges to the manuscript text and/or graphics which could affect content, and all legal disclaimersand ethical guidelines that apply to the journal pertain. ACS cannot be held responsible for errorsor consequences arising from the use of information contained in these “Just Accepted” manuscripts.   1 Cost Effective 3DPrinting of Visibly Transparent Microchips within Minutes                                  † chool of Che!istry "#C$%&' Dobson $oa( "off Churchill #venue&' an(y )ay' Tas!ania *++,' #ustralia - chool of Phar!acy "#C$%&' Dobson $oa( "off Churchill #venue&' an(y )ay' Tas!ania *++,' #ustralia .eywor(s/ 0ast Prototyping' 3D Printer' Microflui(ic 0abrication #)T$#CT/ %nestep fabrication of transparent 3D !icroflui(ic to !illiflui(ic (evices was (e!onstrate( using a co!!ercial 3D printer costing 2'3++ with ,++ ! of clear resin for 1345 6t e!ploys (yna!ic !as7 pro8ection stereolithography enabling fast concepttochip ti!e5 The fully auto!ate( syste! allows fabrication of !o(els up to 93 : 2* : 14+ !! ";'y'<& at printing spee(s of 2+ !!=hr in height regar(less of the (esign co!ple;ity5 The !ini!al cross sectional area of 2,+ >! was achieve( for !onolithic !icrochannels an( 2++ >! for positive structures "te!plates for soft lithography&5 The colorless resin?s goo( light trans!ittance "@ A+B trans!ission at wavelengths above 93+ n!& allows for on chip optical (etection' while the electrically insulating !aterial enables electrophoretic separations5 To (e!onstrate its Page 1 of 28ACS Paragon Plus EnvironmentAnalytical Chemistry 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960   2applicability in !icroflui(ics' the printer was use( for the fabrication of a !icro!i;er' a gra(ient !i;er' a (roplet e;tractor' an( a (evice for isotachophoresis5 The !i;ing an( gra(ient for!ation units were incorporate( into a (evice for analysis of nitrate in tap water with stan(ar( a((ition as a single run an( !ultiple (epth (etection cells to provi(e e;ten(e( linear range5  hen fast concepttochip ti!e is a priority' onestep !anufacturing techniues are favore( over conventional !etho(s5 1  Conventional photolithographic !etho(s struggle with 3D (esigns as accurate align!ent an( bon(ing of several layers is crucial to reali<e the 3D structure5 The ability to transfor! (igital (esigns (irectly into physical !o(els  without the nee( for !as7s  will not only spee( up the fabrication process' it will also !a7e practical evaluation of (ifferent (esigns faster an( easier5 3D !anufacturing techniues can be subtractive through re!oval of !aterial with techniues such as fe!tosecon( laser (irect writing' 2  or a((itive through fuse( (eposition !o(eling "0DM&' 3,  or photofabrication5 A'*  #((itive !etho(s in particular have rapi(ly i!prove( over the past (eca(e an( there are now a nu!ber of (ifferent approaches an( !aterials that can be use(5 4  0DM e!ploys a heate( no<<le to e;tru(e a ther!oplastic poly!er that soli(ifies for!ing structures5 McDonal(    5 was the first to print te!plates for casting poly(i!ethylsilo;ane "PDM& an( !icrochip interfaces using the 0DM base( Ther!o8et printer5 3  #lso 0DMbase(' Di!ension T *A4 an( 3DTouch were reporte( for printing centrifugal (evices with 2,9 ×  2,9  ! capillary valves 9  an( reaction ware with 4++  ! (ia!eter channels' ,  respectively5 0DM resolution is li!ite( by no<<le si<e resulting in a !ini!u! feature si<e of 2,+  ! an( surface roughness of ≈  4  !5 The opaue poly!er use( to fabricate these (evices is not co!patible with Page 2 of 28ACS Paragon Plus EnvironmentAnalytical Chemistry 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960   3the use of organic solvents' li!iting the scope for (irectly printe( !icroflui(ic (evices5 # hybri(  printer' %b8et?s E(en 2,+' co!bines 8etting of photocurable resin with photopoly!eri<ation an( was reporte( by )onyFr to !a7e soft lithography te!plates "wi(th/ 9 !!' height/ 3++ G!& an( !icroflui(ic (evices containing a !i;er an( ho!ogeni<er for gynecological cervical sa!ple  preparation "channel height/ 1 !!' wi(th/ 2 !!&5 H  # si!ilar printer' %b8et Conne; 3,+' was use( to fabricate flui(ic (evices "3 !! wi(e an( 15, !! (eep channels& for (rug transport stu(ies5 1+  These stu(ies show li!ite( resolution of 0DM printers when printing close( channels5 Di!ensions were in the !illi!etre range as flushing the support !aterial is !ore (ifficult in narrower channels5 Printing without the supporting !aterial is li!ite( to (esigns (evoi( of large enclose( structures li7e circular channels "4++  ! (ia!eter&5 Photofabrication or IstereolithographyJ "& is perhaps the ol(est an( !ost well 7nown a((itive fabrication !etho(5 The first  syste! use( a co!putercontrolle( focuse( laser bea! to poly!eri<e resin using the vector approach "pointtopoint line (rawn in 3D&5 This was first  presente( in 1H4A' co!!erciali<e( in 1H44' A  an( currently structures can be reali<e( within few hours5 11  Printers e!ploying (yna!ic (igital !as7s for layerbylayer pro8ection are faster' cheaper' an( !ore robust than vectoroperate( printers' as only one translational stage "the Ka;is& is reuire(5 #lso' lasers can be substitute( with less e;pensive co!ponents5 Digital !as7s are currently generate( using liui( crystal (isplay "CD&' 12  (igital !icro!irror (evice "DMD&' 13'19  or liui( crystal on silicon "Co&5 1,  #lthough co!!ercial 3D printers are alrea(y available since 1H44' three li!itations currently restrict their wi(esprea( upta7e in !icroflui(ics5 0irst' e;cept for few e;a!ples' the resolution is often incapable of pro(ucing a usable !icrochip because the print process is always a co!pro!ise between resolution' processing ti!e' an( the final print si<e5 Very highresolution Page 3 of 28ACS Paragon Plus EnvironmentAnalytical Chemistry 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960   9syste!s are only capable of printing ob8ects that are few !illi!eters in (i!ensions an( therefore too s!all to be use( as a !icroflui(ic (evice5 The secon( is the use of an appropriate resin that is cheap to use' an( has suitable !echanical' optical' electrical an( che!ical properties5 Most  printers use opaue !aterials' which are not suitable when i!aging of the process is reuire(' for e;a!ple for stu(ying flui( (yna!ics5 The thir( is the price of the printer5 Most of the printers that !eet the reuire!ent of a print resolution of less than 1++  ! in all 3 (i!ensions cost close to 2+'+++5 # better resolution "1A G! in the < (i!ension& can be achieve( by a cuttinge(ge  printer li7e the Conne; ,++ fro! tratasys5 6t costs 2,+'+++ an( allows for printing large !o(els "9++ : ,++ : 2++ !!& with (ifferent !aterials an( colors' which !ay be useful for in(ustrial applications but not necessarily for the fiel( of !icroflui(ics5 The high cost of the  printers hin(ers the fle;ibility to e;peri!ent with (ifferent nonproprietary resins' as this !ay violate the warranty con(itions5 6t is also i!portant to note that the printer resolution is not euivalent to !ini!u! structure (i!ensions (ue to other factors relate( to re!oving the uncure( or supporting !aterial an( proble!s of over e;posure when printing hanging structures5 6n this wor7 we report the s!allest cross section for printe( !onolithic channels in optically transparent 3D !icroflui(ic to !illiflui(ic (evices using a co!!ercially available 3D printer5 The cost of the printer "2'3++ an( 134 per ,++ ! of clear resin& is euivalent to the cost of high resolution printing a few 2D transparency !as7s for !a7ing planar or si!ple 3D (esigns using soft lithography5 The printer is s!aller' lighter' an( cheaper than other co!!only available 3D printers an( has an ;y pi;el si<e of ,A  ! : ,A  ! an( a preset K resolution of ,+ or 1++  !5 The presente( characteri<ation (ata an( the variety of !icroflui(ic applications (e!onstrate the potential of this printer for fast concepttochip fabrication of labonachip (evices5 The low Page 4 of 28ACS Paragon Plus EnvironmentAnalytical Chemistry 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960
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