Citation: Sa'don, N. F. B., Dahlan, H. B. M., & Zainal, H. B. (2013). Derivation for design of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) framework for Malaysian schools. In Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS), 2013 International
of 6
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
  3 rd   International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems  –    2013 (ICRIIS’13)   Derivation for Design of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) Framework for Malaysian Schools  Nor Fadzleen Binti Sa’don   Faculty of Computing Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor, Malaysia. nor@fadzleen.com  Halina Binti Mohamed Dahlan Faculty of Computing Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor, Malaysia. halina@utm.my  Haliza Binti Zainal Faculty of Computing Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor, Malaysia. hallyzai@gmail.com Abstract-    The new millennium has witnessed the influx of ubiquitous computer mediated resources and online learning platforms in educational institutions locally and globally. The exponential growth of ICT has definitely had pervasive impacts on how Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) can be utilized to enhance the teaching and learning experience in schools. Nonetheless, recent studies on VLE predominantly focus on the execution of technology to scaffold the learning paradigm but there is yet a framework that holistically synthesizes the managing of VLE with the execution of VLE, especially to fit in the Malaysian education system. Hence, this research discusses the conception and design of VLE framework for Malaysian schools. This research explores the structure and characteristics of VLE from empirical studies and existing theoretical frameworks. It aims to identify strengths and gaps for refining the existing frameworks for the conception and design of a holistic VLE framework, catering to the Malaysian education landscape. In order to conduct the meta-analysis and keyword mapping of these frameworks, Qualitative Data Analysis is used where empirical, methodological controlled analysis of texts within their context of communication are coded, deciphered and analyzed. The findings may provide a foundation for future studies into the deployment of a framework in order to provide a robust VLE architecture for VLE implementation in Malaysian schools. Keywords-   Virtual Learning Environment; Framework; Pedagogical Support; Malaysian schools I.   INTRODUCTION In the epoch of digital intelligence, it is inevitable to deny the massive impact of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) on the transformative education outcomes. With the transition of the roles of students and teachers in the teaching and learning realm there is a shift of paradigm in viewing how essential it is to support the burgeoning digital literacy amongst teachers, students and parents locally and globally. [1] emphasizes this when he states "a multiliterate teacher understands the many ways that technology intertwines with academic and interpersonal life and actively learns how to gain control over those aspects."   A series of literature reviews have has arisen around the Digital Natives and Immigrants theory, including various depiction of students as ‘the Net Generation’ [2], ‘Born Di gital’ [3], ‘Millennials’ [4], and ‘Homo Zappiens’ [5] . With the implementation of VLE in educational institution worldwide, knowledge acquisition and online learning management can be streamlined with ease. VLE is a potent technology mediated learning literature augmented by  prevalence of advanced technologies and virtualized resources. [6] opined that VLE helps to "create cost-effective options for delivery of educational services to geographically-dispersed participants." [7] defines virtual learning environments as computer-based environments that are comparatively open systems, allowing interactions with other participants and access to a wide range of resources. [8] defines VLE as computer-based environments that are comparatively open systems, allowing interactions with other participants and access to a wide range of resources. VLE is an information system designed to facilitate and assist the management of online teaching and learning process. VLE is a potent technology mediated learning literature as In the context of Malaysian schools, VLE is used to enhance intellectual formation, improving the pedagogical practice that is more interactive and engaging. This paper comprises six sections that will discuss the robust technology and development pertaining to VLE. Section I introduces the conception of VLE whereas section II presents the ongoing status of VLE in Malaysia. Section III in this paper explained the issues pertaining to VLE in Malaysia. Literature analysis on existing theoretical VLE frameworks are discussed in Section IV that leads to the findings on the aforementioned VLE frameworks. Finally, Section VI concludes the derivation for design of VLE framework to cater for the Malaysian education landcape.  3 rd   International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems  –    2013 (ICRIIS’13)   II. VLE IN MALAYSIA VLE is used in schools to enhance intellectual formation, improving the pedagogical practice that is more interactive and engaging. In the context of Malaysian education system, the Ministry of Malaysia via Educational Technology Division has taken numerous efforts to initiate and support the implementation of ICT in teaching and learning in all  primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. Information and Communication in Technology (ICT) in education was widely introduced by Ministry of Education in 2002, covering from preschool, primary, secondary and tertiary education. Under the ICT programme in schools, there are four main projects that have been executed namely, Smart School, Bestari School Project, Schoolnet, Computer Lab and Educational Television. [9] Dato’ Seri Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi, the former Prime Minister of Malaysia, during Launch of The Multimedia Super Corridor (M.S.C.) Next Leap on 3rd July 2004, emphasized how smart school program would have ongoing transition which is vital in providing a progressive e-learning ethos in Malaysian schools. The smart school  program will be re-modelled and its implementation fast-tracked to enable more schools to benefit, at lower cost to the government. In this context, advanced teaching and learning materials developed through the Smart School Pilot  program will be utilized for teaching, while the Smart School Management System will be used to improve administration processes. The latest government initiative is the inception of 1BestariNet, a VLE ecosystem equipped with high speed 4G mobile Internet will be made available in all schools in Malaysia. [10] In this context, advanced teaching and learning materials developed through the Bestari 1 Net, helps to proliferate teaching and administrative process in VLE implementation in schools. Hence, there is a need to support the stakeholders in fortifying their roles in VLE ecosystem. Teachers will need to change their role in the virtual classroom from being information providers to facilitators to help students develop know how and  judgment to select information sources. Parents as the stakeholder will gain access to monitor and access the academic progress and content management of their children via this new VLE ecosystem. Via VLE, teaching and learning process in Malaysia is not merely regurgitation of information and set of data but a holistic approach on how knowledge distribution can be optimized via VLE. III. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF VLE IN MALAYSIA Despite a stream of theories on VLE being adopted and adapted to support teaching and learning experience, the implementation of VLE in Malaysian schools is still new and not widely explored by Malaysian educators. The main concern on the use of VLE in Malaysian schools is due to the teachers' lack of experience and prior knowledge on applying the pedagogical aspects of their lesson via virtual learning platform. Hence, developing a holistic framework that holistically offer pedagogical and users support to the teachers, students and parents in Malaysia is paramount in ensuring the success of VLE implementation in Malaysian schools. In the context of Malaysian schools, the main polemic for the project success in Malaysian schools have always been the ineffective and limited ICT literacy among the teachers and learners. [11] In this context, the main concern for any implementation on any new technology in school is the  pedagogical implications, teachers' and learners' readiness on embarking any new technology used in schools. Most educators in schools harboured doubts on how to integrate  pedagogical aspects of their teaching via the use of online instructional tools as there is disengagement between  pedagogy and technology in the learning process. Identifying the deliverables in VLE is vital as technology alone is insufficient to deliver the pedagogical and learning content intended in the outline of the VLE ecosystem. This research is significant as there is yet any academic writing or research being carried out on the design of VLE framework that transcends all of the needs of the stakeholders; teacher, student and parents. Based on the past research, there is no specific framework that has been developed by any individual or Ministry of Education Malaysia on the deployment of Virtual Learning Experience (VLE) in Malaysia. Research on VLE to date tend to emphasize more on features, component and technical aspects of the platform rather than provide comprehensive pedagogical content support to teachers and students on the best way to optimize the use of VLE in the classroom . In the context of Frog VLE, as it is only launched in March 2012 and tested by 30 schools as pilot  project, there is no framework or specific pedagogical content support being offered to teachers, students and  parents as the emphasis was more on the proper technicalities in handling the instructional technology. There are various ways that VLEs might achieve this but as yet there is currently no recognized evaluation methodology which assess different virtual learning platform in Malaysian schools.   Identifying the deliverables in VLE is vital as technology alone is insufficient to deliver the  pedagogical and learning content intended in the outline of the virtual learning platform. Hence, identifying the entities, elements and components of VLE would assist the deployment of a framework that holistically transcend the  3 rd   International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems  –    2013 (ICRIIS’13)    pedagogical execution and content management of VLE ecosystem in Malaysian schools. IV. REVIEW OF LITERATURE In terms of interactivity, VLE acts as performance management system where it comprises users' assessment and evaluation, competency management succession  planning, and ongoing learning workflow. It can take place synchronously or asynchronously. In the context of school setting, the learning environment provided by VLE allows instructors to manage their lesson beyond the classroom walls via online courses and interaction. The management of online teaching is then synched with knowledge exchange and information retrieval by the students. As we embrace latest technology, it is pivotal that we review the theoretical foundation and existing frameworks that would fit in the VLE mold, in order to scaffold the learning experience more effectively. From the system architectural design down to the execution of the virtual learning mechanics, instructional tool alone would not be able to fulfill the criteria of effective digital learning experience without the support of stellar framework. Frameworks provide a set of tangible functionalities, such as  personalizing learning plans, learning materials, tests, and are capable of initializing the interaction with learners by  providing advice, necessary instant messages, etc., to online learners. [12] The main purpose of studying the existing frameworks is to see what have been the main emphases, characteristics and ways the frameworks can be further optimized to offer holistic support to the stakeholders in maximizing VLE effectively in Malaysian schools. In the context of VLE frameworks, there are 7 major frameworks that focus on the implementation of VLE. These frameworks were selected due to its distinct reference to VLE implementation and executions in education realm. The frameworks are selected on their significance in defining collateral interactions between technology, users and pedagogical aspects in learning paradigms. The frameworks are mapped chronologically and offer multi- perspective outlooks on how VLE should be planned, executed and assessed in the teaching and learning process. TABLE I . EXISTING VLE FRAMEWORKS Author Framework Year Parameter of studies Zabbala SETT [13] 1995 Student, Environments, Tasks, and Tools Biggs Constructive Alignment [14] 1999 Learning Activities, Assessment Koehler & Mishra  TPACK [15] 2005 Technological Pedagogical Knowledge, Technological Content Knowledge, Pedagogical Content Knowledge Khan Eight Dimensional E-Learning Framework [16] 2006 Pedagogical, Technological, Interface design, Evaluation, Management, Resource support, Ethical and Institutional Idrus Technogogy [17] 2008 Pedagogy, Content, Technology Puentedura SAMR [18] 2009 Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition Alsagof TEST-L [19] 2013 Digital, Training, Support, Physical, Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition V. RESEARCH METHOD In order to study the current needs of VLE in Malaysian schools, Qualitative Data Analysis is used to study the  pattern, similarities and differences of all the existing theoretical VLE frameworks. This method allows intersections of conditions and variables in VLE where existing theoretical VLE frameworks are studied to detect any connecting pattern or missing elements that impede the Figure 1: Mapping of Literature Analysis Qualitative data analysis is the method chosen in derivation  process of the main elements and components in a holistic VLE framework for Malaysian schools. Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is implemented to systematically document the data collection and scrutinize the data. The analysis is done via categorizing, comparing and contrasting the research input. Results are extracted via Interactive Model of Data Analysis developed by Miles & Huberman [20]. Figure 2: Interactive Data Analysis  3 rd   International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems  –    2013 (ICRIIS’13)   This method reviews and analyzes data using comparative analysis and deductive methods. The main objective of using this method is to look for convergence that would assist providing stellar support and expedite learning gratification in digital settings. The existing frameworks are compared and contrasted for refinement phase. In this method, meta-analysis and keyword mapping are techniques adopted in derivation of the development of a holistic VLE framework as it synthesize a wholesome  perspective that encompasses fundamental and current needs and wants on VLE implementation to fit in the Malaysian education landscape. In order to deploy a holistic framework in pedagogical support for VLE implementation in Malaysian schools, this method proliferates multilateral needs and benefits to the stakeholders, specifically to offer  pedagogical and users support in Malaysian context. In order to study and analyze the existing theoretical frameworks, the analysis is narrowed down into two categories, components and elements. In the context of VLE frameworks, a component is defined as a dimension that is combined with another dimension to form an end usable VLE [21]. After conducting meta-analysis and keyword mapping on the seven existing VLE frameworks, four components were frequently mentioned and they are users, content, technology and pedagogy. TABLE 2. VLE FRAMEWORK VIEW ON THE COMPONENTS IN VLE Framework Component in VLE User Content Technology Pedagogy SETT         Constructive Alignment     TPACK   Eight Dimensional E-Learning Framework   Technogogy   SAMR     TEST-L     TABLE 3. VLE FRAMEWORK VIEW ON THE ELEMENTS IN VLE Framework Elements in VLE Training Learning Augmentation Assessment SETT     Constructive Alignment       TPACK     Eight Dimensional E-Learning Framework     Technogogy     SAMR     TEST-L    Apart from components, meta-analysis and keyword mapping on the elements in VLE is carried out to study the important elements needed for a holistic framework of VLE. Pertaining to VLE, an element is defined as a subject which is usable as a standalone and is imperative in ensuring educational transaction that is sustainable across time [22]. After studying all the seven existing frameworks, four elements were identified and they are training, learning, augmentation and evaluation. VI. FINDINGS The findings of the literature indicated that only two existing frameworks, SETT and TEST-L highlighted users as the main components. There is a gap in pedagogical approach. SETT, Constructive Alignment and SAMR frameworks mainly focus on content and technology and none of the aforementioned framework listed user and pedagogy as important component in VLE. The later frameworks: The 8 dimensional E-Learning Framework and Technology integrate content, pedagogy and technology but do not include user as the main component. However, the latest frameworks, TEST-L integrate all the main components (user, content, pedagogy and technology). From Table 2 and Table 3, there is a lack of emphasis on users as the main component in ensuring a successful VLE. However, effective teaching will only occur if here is a dynamic balance between content, pedagogy, user and technology. Technology and content alone are not sufficient in ensuring a successful utilisation of VLE in Malaysian schools. Users should be emphasized as an important entity  because it ensures the content; pedagogy and technology are streamlined and achieved the teaching and learning objectives. Attention needs to be given to the stakeholders (teachers, students and parents) where training and learning components need to be synched and given holistically to ensure the intended learning objectives in virtual classrooms can be achieved successfully. Technology should only be  perceived as a teaching tool and not sole dominant variable in a successful teaching via VLE. All the aforementioned frameworks were analyzed for the  purpose of studying existing frameworks on virtual learning experience. The frameworks chosen cover from various angle; content, pedagogy and technology which are the main components of most VLE frameworks listed.  3 rd   International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems  –    2013 (ICRIIS’13)   Although all of the frameworks were designed to scaffold VLE, not all frameworks cover the integration of technology, pedagogy and content paradigms holistically to support an effectual online teaching and learning experience. Apart from that, it was apparent that there is a disengagement and intangible connection between the  process and target users in VLE process that lead to issues in VLE implementation in Malaysian schools. Thus, there is a need to highlight all of the elements in a holistic  perspective and not just peripheral view on the importance of technology alone in VLE implementation. Table 4: Component and Elements of VLE in Existing VLE Frameworks Frameworks Components Elements UserContentTechnologyPedagogyTrainingLearningAugmentationAssessment SETT             Constructive Alignment           TPACK         Eight Dimensional E-Learning Framework         Technogogy         SAMR         TEST-L        Based from the findings, the existing frameworks have varying strengths and capacities in enforcing VLE implementation in teaching and learning process.  Nonetheless, none of the frameworks are specially catered to suit the needs and wants of the Malaysian education settings, particularly in Malaysian schools. Due to the current needs and escalating technology innovations in education, there is a need to deploy a framework that can offer a holistic perspective on VLE governance and implementation in Malaysia.   VII. CONCLUSION Teaching and learning through VLE requires the development of appropriate and interesting content for the technology to be fully utilized. [23] reaffirmed this by stating that VLE is "not just about a set of useful IT Tools for learning" and we need to perceive the needs to give a comprehensive attention to management of VLE by authorities, optimization of training and support for stakeholders and not forgetting an on-going refining and evaluation of VLE implementation in Malaysian schools. By understanding the needs of the clients or the end-users, teachers would be able to execute better content deliverance via suitable pedagogical approach and integration of flexible virtual learning platform. Thus, explicit choices in the design of the VLE must be made, choices that have likely consequences on learning and student satisfaction. There are a myriad of alternatives in how learning can be developed and delivered in a more constructive and engaging manner. Therefore, there should be a mechanism that could fulfil this objective. The key findings all point to the need in giving holistic support in pedagogical and user perspectives in VLE is via deployment of holistic framework. Providing pedagogical support is important as it allows "interaction, collaboration, exchange of ideas" that explicitly contribute to the community learning environment. [24] Hence, the framework needs to comprise all the essential components (user, pedagogy, content, technology) and elements (training, learning, augmentation, evaluation) that would holistically address the current needs of the education stakeholders in Malaysia. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Highest gratitude is expressed towards Malaysian Educational Technology Division and Ministry of Education Malaysia for providing assistance and resources during the  preparation of this paper. References [1] Stevens, V. (2006) Survey of Learning Management Systems. (2006). Learning Circuits. Retrieved November 20, 2006 from http://www.learningcircuits.org/2006/August/2006LMSresults.htm [2] Tapscott, D. (1998) Growing up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation. New York: McGraw Hill. [3] Palfrey, J. & Gasser, U. (2008).Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives, New York. [4] Oblinger, D. (2003). Boomers, Gen-Xers and Millenials. Retrived July-August 2003 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0342.pdf  [5] Veem, W. & Vrakking, B. (2006). Homo Zappiens : Growing Up in the Digital Age. London : Network Continuum Education. [6] Alavi, M. and Leidner, D. (2002). Virtual Learning Systems. Encyclopedia of Information Systems, Academic Press, New York. [7] Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad, & Eneng Muslihah. (2011). Teachers' ICT Competence and Attitudes toward the use of ICT in Secondary Schools in Kuala Lumpur. Loquen: English Studies Journal. 4(2):107-125 (ISSN1979-9500) (  Non-ISI/Non-SCOPUS Cited Publication ) [8] Harmon, J. & Marquez-Zenkov, K. (2003). Perpetual Pedagogy: A Critical Deficiency in Modeling Educational Technology to Pre and In-Service Teachers. In C. Crawford, D. Willis, R. Carlsen, I. Gibson, K. McFerrin, J. Price & R. Weber (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for
Similar documents
View more...
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks