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Ecofriendly Management of Major Pests of Maize in North East India

Ecofriendly Management of Major Pests of Maize in North East India
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  RecentPosts   Eco-friendlyManagementofMajorPestsofMaizeinNorthEastIndia    Eco-friendlyManagementofMajorPestsofMaizeinNorthEastIndia    AgricultureinformationHub     ► Kill Pests ► Shillong ► Insects ► Pest Guard  12/2/2014 Eco-friendly Management of Major Pests of Maize in North East India 2/7 is primarily grown under jhum land and terraced area. This crop is infested by large number of insect pests,which cause severe damage from germination to harvest resulting into low yield. Maize cob borer and stem borer are the major pests of maize. Termites, ear cutting caterpillars and field crickets are also found in the early stageof crop growth. The other pests viz., Bihar hairy caterpillar (Diacrisia obliqua), aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis),leafhoppers, white backed plant hoppers, semilooper (Trichoplusia orichalcia), tussel caterpillars, grasshoppers(Chrotogonus roberstoni, Oxya chinensis, Aularchis meliaris), armyworm (Mythimna separata), elephant beetle(Xylotrupes giddeon) and termites, are of minor importance (Shylesha et al., 2006; Azad Thakur et al., 2009). The details on identification, biology and life cycle of some of the important pest of maize are given below;   Cob borer (Stenachroia elongella)  The cob borer moths emerge during the third week of June and the egglaying starts two days after eclosion, at cob initiation stage and continuesup to 80 DAS. The adult female lays 70-80 eggs singly on the base of the cobs between two cob sheaths. The eggs are small cream colour andhatch in 5-8 days. The newly emerged larvae puncture the cobs andexcrement on the cob is the clear symptom of damage by cob borer. Thepresence of 3-5 larvae per cob is sufficient to damage the cobcompletely. Total life cycle of the pest is 45 days. There are four larvalinstars over a period of 28-30 days. Pupation occurs within the cob or between the cob sheath and pupal period ranges from 6-8 days. Adultmale lives for 8-10 days and female lives for 10-15 days. There are threeto four overlapping generations from July to end of the September. Thelate sown crop suffers heavily compare to early sown crop. Larvalexcrement material and webbing is clearly seen on damaged cobs. Thepest damages the cobs up to 34.2%. Stem Borer ( Chilo partellus ) Newly hatched larvae scrap the central leaves of the whorl and soontunnel into the stem through the whorl. The new emerging leaves of thewhorl show small pinholes known as shot hole injury .  Grown up larvaeproduce bigger holes in the whorl leaves, the severe attack results indrying of central whorl of the plant, which is called ‘dead heart’ (Fig 2). The plants showing dead hearts do notshow usual leaf injury symptoms, remain stunted in growth and no flowering takes place. The larvae alsodamage the emerging tassels, silk and developing grains on the cobs and pupate inside the stem. This is themost serious pest of maize and causes up to 70-75 per cent damage.  12/2/2014 Eco-friendly Management of Major Pests of Maize in North East India 3/7 Fig 2. Stem borer damage Army Worm ( Mythimna separata ) The full-grown caterpillar is stout, 4 cm long and dusky brown in color with pale/brown longitudinal stripes, thedorsolateral stripes being broken into spots. The outbreak of this pest occurs suddenly and farmers generallynotice it after it has already caused considerable damage. The caterpillars generally feed at night and hide inwhorls of plants during the day. The caterpillars march from field to field and voraciously feed on foliage. Theyappear after the heavy rains or early floods. Aphids ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) Both apterous and pterous aphids infest the upper half of the plant. Generally, this insect is very active during therabi season. Long dry spells increase the incidence of this insect. Nymphs and adults (Fig. 3) suck the sap fromthe leaves/shoots and exude honeydew, on which a sooty mold grows, giving the leaves a black appearance andthus affect photosynthesis badly.  12/2/2014 Eco-friendly Management of Major Pests of Maize in North East India 4/7 Fig 3. Aphids on inflorescence Termites ( Microterms obesi  ) Termites are polyphagous pests. The worker caste is the damaging stage. This pest feed on roots of maizecausing severe damage and leads to yellowing of plants (Fig. 4).Fig 4. Termite damage Eco-friendly Management of major pests of Maize Deep ploughing in the month of March/April exposes the larval/ pupal stages of insect pest like cob borer,stem borer and cut worm, to natural predators like birds. Eggs of grasshoppers and crickets also getexposed to sunlight and get killed.Burning of the crop residues or allow farm animals to graze on it kills the over wintering stages i.e. larvaeand pupae of cob borer and stem borer.Crop should be planted early i.e. in the month of March/April to overcome cob borer attack.Sorghum varieties IS-2312, DJ-6514 and DSV-1 can be grown as trap crop to escape the cob borer damage.Tolerant variety, RCM 1-1 or Local yellow of maize should be grown to escape the cob borer damage.Collection and destruction of the grown up larvae of cutworm and armyworm gives good control.Destruction of the colonies of the termites in the vicinity of field gives protection against the termites.  12/2/2014 Eco-friendly Management of Major Pests of Maize in North East India 5/7 Spraying of Neemark or Limanool @ 3ml/lit at the silking stage reduce cob borer population.Whorl application of carbofuran 3G @ 5-6 granules per whorl at 25 - 30 days after germination effectivelychecks the stem borer, cut worms and armyworms.Spraying Dipel @ 1 lit/ha at 80-90 DAS gives effective control of cob borer and aphid.Carbaryl (5%) dust @ 20 kg/ha before sowing the crop is very effective against the field cricket andtermites. References :Joshi, P.K., N.P. Singh, N.N. Singh, R.V. Gerpacio, and P.L. Pingali. 2005. Maize in India: ProductionSystems, Constraints, and Research Priorities. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.Shylesha A N., Azad Thakur NS, Pathak K A., Rao K R., Saikia K., Surose S., Kodandaram, N H. and Kalaishekar A. 2006. Integrated management of insect pest of crops in north eastern hill region. TechnicalBulletin No. 19. ICAR RC for NEH Region, Umiam, 50p. Azad Thakur, N.S., Kalaishekhar, A. Ngachan, S.V. Saikia, K., Rahaman, Z. and Sharma, S. 2009.Insect pest of crops in north east India. ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, 360p. Authors: David Nonglait  1*  , Pritin Sontakke 2  , D M Firake 1  and G T Behere 1 1 Division of Crop Improvement (Entomology), ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umroi road, Umiam,Meghalaya-793103, India 2 College of Post Graduate Studies, Central Agriculture University, Umroi road, Barapani, Meghalaya-793103,India * Email:  (Corresponding author)  
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