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Education in the United States is provided by public and private schools.docx

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Education in the United States is provided by public and private schools. Public education is universally available, with control and funding coming from state, local, and federal government.[4] Public school curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards with jurisdiction over school districts. State governments have control over educational standards and standardized tests for public school systems.[clarification needed] Private schoo
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  Education in the United States  is provided by  public and  private schools. Public education is universally available, with control and funding coming from state, local,and federal  government. [4]  Public school curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and other policies are setthrough locally elected school boards with jurisdiction over  school districts.State governments have control over educational standards and standardized tests for public school systems. [ clarification needed  ] Private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum andstaffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through independent regionalaccreditation authorities. 88% of school-age children attend public schools, 9% attend privateschools, and nearly 3% are homeschooled. [5]  Education is compulsory over an age range beginning somewhere between ages five to eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen to eighteen, depending on the state. [6]  This requirementcan be satisfied by educating children in  public schools,state-certified  private schools,or an approved home school  program. In most schools, education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school,and high school.Children are usually divided  by age groups into grades,ranging from kindergarten and first grade for the youngest children, up to twelfth grade as the final year of  high school.  There are also a large number and wide variety of publicly and privately administeredinstitutions of  higher education throughout the country. Post-secondary education,divided into college,as the first tertiary degree, and graduate school,is described in a separate section below. Government supported, free public schools for all started being established after the AmericanRevolution,and expanded in the 19th century, as the results of efforts of, among others, Horace Mann and Booker T. Washington.By 1870, all states had free elementary schools, [7]  albeit onlyin urban centers. As the 20th century drew nearer, states started passing laws to make schoolingcompulsory, and by 1910, 72 percent of children attended school. Private schools continued tospread during this time, as well as colleges and  —  in the rural centers  —  land grant colleges.1910also saw the first true high schools.During the rest of the 20th century, educational efforts centered on reducing the inequality of theschooling system. The landmark Supreme Court case   Brown v. Board of Education  made thedesegregation of elementary and high schools a national priority, while the Pell Grant  program helped poor minorities gain access to college. Special education was made into federal law in 1975.The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 made standardized testing a requirement, and in 1983, a commission was established to evaluate their results and propose a course of  action. The resulting  No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was controversial and its goals proved to  be unrealistic. A commission established in 2006 evaluated higher education,but its recommendations have yet to be fully implemented. General level (or category) Level Student age range Preschool   Pre-kindergarten   3-5Kindergarten   4-6  Compulsory education   Elementaryschool   Kindergarten   5-61st grade   6-72nd grade   7-83rd grade   8-94th grade   9-105th grade   10-11Middleschool   6th grade   11-12Junior highschool   7th grade   12-138th grade   13-14Highschool   9th grade   14-15Senior highschool   10th grade   15-1611th grade   16-1712th grade   17-18 Higher education   College (University)  Undergraduateschool   Freshman year    Ages vary, but often 18-22for a consecutive  bachelor'sdegree (usually within a solitaryconcentration) Sophomore year    Junior year    Senior year    Graduate school (with various degrees and curricular partitionsthereof)Ages vary Continuing education Vocational school   Ages vary   
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