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Effect of Temperature and Storage on Vitamin C Content in Fruits Juice

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The amount of Vitamin C content of some fresh fruit degradaded with time was investigated; Pineapple, Orange, Watermelon and Tomato stored under difference conditions. The juices from the samples were extracted and vitamin C content in the juice was
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    International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science   Vol. 1, No. 2, 2015, pp. 17-21 http://www.aiscience.org/journal/ijcbs   * orrespon!ing author "#ail a!!ress: isha$%abuba&ar'(ahoo.co# ). "+-sha$ Effect of Temperature and Storage on Vitamin C Content in Fruits Juice Abubakar El-Ishaq  ! Simon "birinakem chool o cience an! echnolog(, cience +aborator( echnolog( epart#ent, he#istr(/ioche#istr( 3nit, 4e!eral ol(technic, a#aturu  Nigeria Abstract he a#ount o Vita#in  content o so#e resh ruit !egra!a!e! with ti#e was in6estigate! ineapple, 8range, 9ater#elon an! o#ato store! un!er !ierence con!itions. he juices ro# the sa#ples were etracte! an! 6ita#in  content in the juice was anal(se! at roo# te#perature, ;0 0  an! at se6en )7 !a(s storage b( in!ophenols titration #etho!. he result re6eale! that 6ita#in  content is #ore in ineapple juice co#pare! to 8range, 9ater#elon an! o#ato juice as shown in able 1 in this or!er ;<.=> ?1.>75, =<.75 ?1.000, 27.50?1.250 an! 1<.1= ?1.@=0 #g/100#l respecti6el(. he resh juice were boile! at ;0 0  an! 6ita#in  content was !eter#ine!. Aesult shows that there is !ecrease! in Vita#in  content ater boiling as shown in able 1 2@.25 ?1.750, 2=.00 ?1.520, 1@.70?1.;20 an! 10.>= ?2.@00 #g/100#l respecti6el(. he resh juices were also store! at roo# te#perature or 7 !a(s an! 6ita#in  content was !eter#ine!. Aesult re6eale! that there is loss o 6ita#in  content in resh juice but not as #uch as the boile! juice able1 ;2.1= ?0.>75, =1.50 ? 1.000, 21.@= ?1.@25 an! 15.@=?0.@25 #g/100#l respecti6el(. he rate at which 6ita#in  is loss !uring storage !epen! on the t(pe o storage #etho!s e#plo(e!. #e$%ords cur6(, ntioi!ant, n!ophenol itration, Vita#in  in 4resh 4ruits, Vegetables, tabilit( an! a#aturu Aecei6e!: Ba( 2, 2015 / ccepte!: Ba( 2<, 2015 / ublishe! online: Cul( <, 2015 ' 2015 he uthors. ublishe! b( #erican nstitute o cience. his 8pen ccess article is un!er the  D-N license. http://creati6eco##ons.org/licenses/b(-nc/;.0/  &' Introduction Vita#in  a co#ponent o oo!, nee! b( all ani#als especiall( Eu#ans to pre6ent scur6(, a !isease o the gu#s,  bones an! bloo! 6essels an! to increase the bo!(Fs resistance to inection. scorbic aci! acts as an antioi!ant, a nutrient that che#icall( bin!s an! neutraliGes the tissue-!a#aging eects o substances in the en6iron#ent &nown as ree ra!icals. s a result, ascorbic aci! is 6ital or the growth an! #aintenance o health( bones, teeth, gu#s, liga#ents an!  bloo! 6essels. ecause o its role in the or#ation o collagen, the bo!(Fs #ajor buil!ing protein, a central co#ponent o all  bo!( organs. hereore, the !eter#ination o Vita#in   beco#es increasingl( i#portant in areas such as ioche#istr(, har#acolog(, an! Nutrition. Vita#in  occurs naturall( in #an( ruits an! 6egetables, particularl( in to#atoes, citrus ruit, cantaloupe, broccoli, spinach, green  peppers, cabbage, pineapple, #elons, Bangoes an! potatoes. he 6ita#in is easil( !estro(e! b( coo&ing or canning oo!s an! b( eposure to air an! light.  health( !iet generall( contains suicient $uantities o ascorbic aci!, but the bo!( re$uires #ore o the 6ita#in ater serious injur(, #ajor surger(, burns an! when epose! to etre#es te#perature. t ris& or !eicienc( are s#o&ers, wo#en ta&ing contracepti6es containing the e#ale se hor#one estrogens an! people who li6e in cities with high le6els o carbon #onoi!e ro# traicH here is conlicting e6i!ence that ta&ing large !oses o ascorbic aci! will either pre6ent the co##on col! or re!uce the se6erit( o its s(#pto#s. scorbic aci! is an organic co#poun! o carbon, h(!rogen an! o(gen. ure ascorbic aci! is a white soli! an! is #a!e s(ntheticall( ro# the sugar !etrose. t is use! both in 6ita#in supple#ents an! as a oo!  preser6ati6e.  1> buba&ar "+-sha$ an! i#on 8birina&e#: "ect o e#perature an! torage on Vita#in  ontent in 4ruits Cuice Vita#in  )lso reerre! to as +- ascorbic aci! is the +actose -2,=,-!ienol-+-gluconic aci! an! is an o!ourless, white soli! ha6ing the che#ical or#ula  @ E > 8 @ . Vita#in  is the +-enantio#ic or# o ascorbic aci! which also enco#passes the oi!ation pro!uct o !eh(!roascorbic. t  participates in nu#erous bioche#ical reactions, suggesting that 6ita#in  is i#portant or bo!( process ro# repair )Aic&#an et al, 2007. Vita#in  or +- ascorbic aci! or +-ascorbate is an essential nutrient or hu#ans an! certain other ani#al species, in which it unction as a 6ita#in. n li6ing organis#s, ascorbate is an antioi!ant since it protects the  bo!( against oi!ati6e stress )chorah et al, 1<<@. scorbate )an ion o scorbic aci! is re$uire! or a range o essential #etabolic reactions in all ani#als an! plants. t is #a!e internall( b( al#ost all organis# notabl( #a##alian group eceptions are #ost or all o the or!er hiroptera )ats an! one o the two #ajor pri#ate subor!er nthropoi!ea. scorbic aci!, in turn, is essential or the acti6it( o rol(lh(!ro(lase which con6ert proline resi!ues in collagen to h(!ro(proline.)ethlehe#, a#pbell an! 4arrel, 201=.   nal(ses o the eect o Nigerian #ar&et storage con!itions on ascorbic aci!, titratable aci!it( an! pE 6alues o selecte! tetrapa& pac&age! citrus ruit juice in Nigerian #ar&ets   sa#ples were carrie! out ro# = #onths to 10 #onths ro# the !a( o pro!uction. he results showe! that there was gra!ual !ecrease in ascorbic aci! contents an! pE 6alues with increase in storage perio! irrespecti6e o the bran!s )Cohnson, et al., 201=. he ai# o the research wor& is !eter#ine! the a#ount o 6ita#in  content in !ierent resh ruit an! in! out the rate o !egra!ation with ti#e an! te#perature. (' )istor$ of Vitamin C Vita#in  also &nown as ascorbic aci! is a s#all carboh(!rate #olecule irst i!entiie! in the 1<20s b( lbert Van GentI(org(i, who !isco6ere! that it was able to pre6ent an! cure scur6(. cur6( is a pathological lie threatening con!ition suere! b( people who !o not ha6e access to ruits or 6egetables or long perio!s o ti#e.  !eca!e earlier, JaGi#ierG 4un& ha! prepare! a list o nutritional actors calle! 6ita#ins, whose !eiciencies cause se6ere !iseases in hu#ans. n his list, 4un& use! the +etter KL to !esignate a actor still uni!entiie!, but &nown to pre6ent scur6(. +ater on, GentI(org(i an! Eaworth che#icall( i!entiie!  as scorbic aci!, an! na#e! it so because one o the #ost  popular !rugs in hu#an histor(. 9h( is this #olecule so well &nownH part ro# its !eicienc( causing scur6( in hu#ans, 6ita#in  is also 6itall( i#portant to other species. Neither ani#als nor plants can li6e without 6ita#in c an! it is thereore suprising that so#e ani#als )so#e ishes an! bir!s, an! a ew #a##als, inclu!ing guinea pigs an! hu#an ha6e lost the capabilit( to  pro!uce it o6er the course o e6olution.)Irano an! ullio, 2007. *' +roperties of Vitamin C scorbic aci! is a colourless an! o!ourless cr(stalline substance, slightl( sour in taste an! opticall( acti6e. 8nl( the +-so#er has antiscorbutic properties. t is soluble in water an! alcohol but practicall( insoluble in chloroor#, ether an! light petroleu#. t has a #elting point about 1<0 0  )=7; o 4 )with !eco#position, boiling point about 55= 0  )1027 0 4, !ensit( 1.@<; g/c# = , #olar #ass 17@.12g/#ole,  E  = )5M sol, 6apour !ensit( autoignition @@0 0 , reacti6it( 8, stable un!er or!inar( con!itions. t is rea!il( oi!iGe!, particularl( in the presence o opper an! ron but not o lu#inu#. t is or this reason that the oo!s coo&e! in copper utensils lose ascorbic aci! $uic&l(. his 6ita#in is also rapi!l( !estro(e!  b( al&alis but is airl( stable in wea& aci! solutions. hereore, ba&ing so!a has a !eleterious eect but stea# coo&ing !estro(s 6er( little a#ount o ascorbic aci!. Eowe6er, reeGing has no !etri#ental eect on this 6ita#in. itrus ruits an! to#ato juices #a( be canne! with but little loss o ascorbic aci!. 8n account o its eas( oi!iGation nature, the ascorbic aci! is a powerul re!ucing agent. he oi!ati6e nature is applie! locall( b( wo#en across Nigeria or bleaching, washing an! cleansing their jewelries )"l-sha$ an! b!ullahi, 2010. ,' iochemical .ole of Vitamin C t was note! in the earl( eperi#ent o Eolst an! 4rohlich an! conir#e! b( #an( wor&ers, that !eecti6e or#ation o connecti6e tissue was a pri#ar( pathological eature o eperi#ental scur6(, an! at one ti#e it was belie6e! that this lesion coul! account or #ost o the &nown pathological se$uelae o the !isease. he potential he#orrhages, the  brea&!own o gu# tissue an! the i#pair#ent o woun! repair tissue. tte#pts to characteriGe the bioche#ical #o!us operan!i o 6ita#in  in pre6enting scur6(, thereore, centere! initiall( on the #etabolis# o collagen, the essential gl(coprotein co#ponent responsible or i#parting strength to connecti6e tissue. ( the 1<70s, there was suggesti6e e6i!ence that the  bioche#ical lesion was locate! in the h(!ro(lation o the  proline an! l(sine co#ponents o the collagen pol(pepti!e an! that 6ita#in  ha! an essential role in the process. he h!ro(lases in6ol6e! in collagen bios(nthesis )rol(l-;- h(!ro(lase, prol(l-=- h(!ro(lase, an! l(s(l h(!ro(lase   nternational Cournal o he#ical an! io#olecular cience Vol. 1, No. 2, 2015, pp. 17-21 1< re$uire errous iron as a coactor, an! it appears that 6ita#in , a powerul biological re!uctant, has an al#ost obligator( role in #aintaining the errous iron in the re!uce! or#. hus e#erge! a si#ple an! re!uction role o 6ita#in  in  pre6enting the e#ergence o the #ain clinical eatures o scur6( )Jiple, 2000. Vita#in  also has speciic roles in the copper-containing h(!ro(lases an! the -&etoglutarate-lin&e! iron-containing h(!ro(lases. t also increases the acti6it( o a nu#ber o other enG(#es in 6itro, although this is a non-enG(#ic eect as a result o its action as a re!ucing agent an! o(gen ra!ical $uencher )Burra( et al, 2012. Vita#in  is or hu#ans an! other pri#ates, the guinea pig,  bats, asserior#es bir!s, an! #ost ishes an! in6ertebrate other ani#als s(nthesiGe it as an inter#e!iate in the uronic aci! pathwa( o glucose #etabolis#. n those species or which it is a 6ita#in, there is a bloc& in the pathwa( as a result o absence o guluconolactone oi!ase. oth ascorbic aci! an! !eh(!roascorbic aci! ha6e 6ita#in acti6it( )erg, (#ocG&o, str(er an! lar&e, 2002. /' E0cretion he a6erage hal-lie o ascorbic aci! is belie6e! to be  between 1@ an! 20 !a(s. ts hal-lie is in6ersel( relate! to inta&e. he water-soluble properties o 6ita#in  lea! to urinar( ecretion o the 6ita#in  Betabolites inclu!ing !eh(!roascorbate )E. 8alic aci!, 2-8-#eth(l ascorbate an! 2- &etoascorbitol are also ecrete! ro# the  bo!( 6ia the urinar( s(ste#, the &i!ne(s pla( a #ajor role in 6ita#in  ecretion an! retention. eh(!roascorbate an! ascorbic aci! can be reabsorbe! b( the &i!ne( tubules as long as bo!( pool le6els are e$ual to or less than 1500#g. le6els within the bo!( that are 1500#g or less will result in no urinar( ecretion o 6ita#in . as le6els increase abo6e 1500#g the reabsorption eicienc( o the &i!ne(s !ecreases. hus, bo!( pools le6els ro# 1500 to =000#g relate to tissue saturation o the 6ita#in. las#a ascorbate le6els between 0.> an! 1.; #g/!l are consi!ere! the renal threshol!. bo6e these le6els, 6ita#in  will be ecrete! rather than reabsorbe! b( the &i!ne( )e&&er, Van oornen an! Je#per, 1<<>. 1' 2ethodolog$ 1'&' Sample Collection and +reparation 4resh ruits  Ananas comosus )ineapple, Citrus sinesis )8range, Citrllus lanatus )9ater#elon an!  Lycopersicum esculentum, )o#ato were purchase! ro# a#aturu entral Bar&et, Nigeria. he ruits were washe! thoroughl( with !istille! water, an! the juices were etracte! #anuall( using juice s$ueeGer. a#ples were iltere! to re#o6e pulp an! see! an! store! in alrea!( labele! plastic containers, till urther use. 1'(' 3etermination of Vitamin C 4Indophenol Titration 2ethod5 E"B+: scorbic aci!, 2,@-ichloroin!ophenol ), Betaphosphoric aci! an! cetic aci! are o anal(tical gra!e supplie! b( ig#a )Ba!ri!, pain. 50c# =  un-concentrate! juice was pipette into 100c# =  6olu#etric las&. 25c# =  o 20M acetic aci! was a!!e! as stabiliGing agent an! was !ilute! to 100c# = . 10c# =  was  pipette into a conical las&, an! 2.5c# =  acetone was a!!e!. t was titrate! with 2, @-ichloroin!ophenol ) tan!ar! solution.  aint pin& colour that was persiste! or about 15 secon!s was obser6e!. he a#ount o !(e use! in the titration was !eter#ine! 6olu#etricall( an! use! in the calculation o the 6ita#in  content #g/ 100#l in the ruit sa#ples. )8, 200@ 1'*' Statistical Anal$sis he result were epresse! as the #ean o triplicate ? stan!ar! error o the #ean )"B at  O 0.05 )O5M. 6' .esults oncentration o Vita#in  )Bg/100#l o 4resh 4ruits Cuice  beore torage, at te#perature o ;0 0 , an! at 7 a(s torage/shel6e li6e are shown in the able 1.bellow: Table 1.  oncentration o 6ita#in c )#g/100#l o ruits juice. Sample Room Temperature Temperature of 40 0 C 7 Day Stora!e ineapple   ;<.=> ?1.>7   2@.25 ?1.70   ;2.1= ? 0.>7   8range   =<.75 ?1.00   2=.00 ?1.52   =1.50 ?1.00   9ater #elon   27.50 ?1.25   1@.70 ?1.;2   21.@= ?1.@2   o#ato   1<.1=?1.@=   10.>=? 2.@0   15.@= ?0.@2   he Aesults are Bean o triplicate ? "B. 7' 3iscussion he result obtaine! ro# the research wor& shows !ierences in 6alues o 6ita#in  at !ierent te#perature an! shel6e lie: ;<.=> ?1.>75, 2@.25 ?1.750 an! ;2.1= ?0.>75#g/100#l or resh, boile! an! a wee& shel6e lie 6alues respecti6el(. he !ierence in 6ita#in  content o resh juice an! boile! juice is 2=.1= #g/100#l );@.>;M. Eowe6er, the store! juice is ha6ing 6ita#in  content o ;2.1= #g/100#l )7.2 #g !ierence ro# resh juice. he pineapple ha! the highest 6ita#in  content ollowe! b( 8range, 9ater#elon, an! o#ato. his consistent with reports that, cli#ate, especiall(  20 buba&ar "+-sha$ an! i#on 8birina&e#: "ect o e#perature an! torage on Vita#in  ontent in 4ruits Cuice te#perature aect 6ita#in  le6el. +ight eposure was oun! to pro#ote browning in pineapple juice, thereore, the longer the eposure, the greater the loss o 6ita#in  )Baria, "ncarna an! Ja!er, 200@. reas with cool nights pro!uce ruits with higher 6ita#in  le6els. Eot tropical areas  pro!uce ruit with lower le6els o 6ita#in  )a!a(att(, et al., 200=. $ueeGe washing re!uce! the Vita#in  content o so#e  Nigeria Ireen lea( Vegetables 3gu ro# @2.50#g/100g to @.;7#g/100g )><.@5M an! itter lea ro# ;2.;<#g/100g to ;.2>#g/100g )><.<0M. $ueeGe-washing ollowe! b(  boiling o bitter lea re!uce! the 6ita#in  content ro# ;2.;0#g/100g to 2.1>#g/100g recor!ing the highest loss o <;.<0M when co#pare! with other processing #etho!s )abalola, usgbobo an! ara#ola, 2010 he 6ita#in  content in resh orange juice shows !ierence 6alues to !ierence te#perature an! shel6e lie, =<.75 ? 1.000, 2=.00 ? 1.520 an! =1.50 ?1.000 #g/100#l or resh,  boile! an! a wee& shel6e lie respecti6el(. he !ierence in 6ita#in  content o resh orange juice an! boile! juice is 1@.75 #g/100#l );2.1; M. Eowe6er, the store! juice is ha6ing 6ita#in  content o =1.50 #g/100#l )>.25 #g !ierence o 20.75M ro# resh juice. Vita#in  !ecreases !uring the ripening process. he i##ature ruit has the highest le6els. he position on the tree also aect 6ita#in  le6els, ruit positione! on the outsi!e o the tree an! the south si!e ha6e a higher le6els, sha!e! insi!e ruit has lowest )a6e(, Bontagu an! nGe, 2000. he resh water#elon juice shows a !ierence in 6ita#in  content at !ierence te#perature an! shel6e lie which are 27.5 ?1.250, 1@.70 ?1.;20 an! 21.@= ?1.@25 #g/100#l or resh, boile! an! a wee& shel6e lie respecti6el(. he !ierence in 6ita#in  content o resh water#elon juice an!  boile! juice is 10.>0 #g/100#l )=<.27M. Eowe6er, the store! juice is ha6ing 6ita#in  content o 21.@= #g /100#l )5.>7#g !ierence 21.=5M ro# resh juice. Eeat an! water re!uce 6ita#in  content, coo&ing re!uce the 6ita#in  content in ruit juice because 6ita#in  content is sensiti6e to heat, water, an! air. he 6ita#in  is irst leache! out o the ruit into the water, an! then !egra!e! b( the heat )Burcia, et al., 2000. he rate at which 6ita#in  content !ecrease! in resh to#ato juice shows a !ierence 6alues at !ierence te#perature an! shel6e lie which are 1<.1= ?1.@=0, 10.>= ?2.@00 an! 15.@= ?0.@25 #g/100#l or resh, boile! an! a wee& shel6e lie 6alues respecti6el(. he !ierence in 6ita#in  content o resh juice an! boile! juice is >.=0 #g/100#l );=.=<M. Eowe6er, the store! juice is ha6ing 6ita#in  content o 15.@= #g/100#l )=.50#g !ierence ro# resh juice. "arl( #aturit( ruit has higher le6els o 6ita#in  than late #aturing t(pes, or instance, green to#ato has the highest le6els o 6ita#in  than the re! to#ato this is because the longer the eposure, the greater the loss o 6ita#in  )Aic&#an, arret an! ruhn, 2007. 8' Conclusion Eigh te#perature has eects on 6ita#in  content o ruits,  blanching in hot water can cause an appreciable loss in 6ita#in  that is ther#all( labile. scorbic aci! oi!ase nee!s to be inacti6ate! this pre6ents enG(#e-catal(Ge! reaction !uring processing. t can be inere! ro# results that the lower the te#perature, the higher the a6ailabilit( o 6ita#in  in ruit juice. t is better to #aintain or store 6ita#in  in a place below the roo# te#perature Ban( che#ical reactions contribute to the loss o storage lie o 6ita#in  an! hence the che#ical !eterioration o ruits. he #ajorit( o these reactions are enG(#aticall( !ri6en while others are che#ical reactions that occur because o the senescence. his in6ol6es colour, la6or, an! o!our changes that result ro# a che#ical reaction between the constituents o the ruits. he bioche#ical reactions occurring o6er the storage perio! together with #icrobial action in all the ruit  juices resulte! in pE changes. scorbic aci! is rea!il( oi!iGe! hence, the use o Betaphosphoric aci! an! cetic aci! to suppress #etabolic acti6it( upon !isruption o the cell an! to precipitate proteins. )4ran&, et al., 200;. his stu!( supports the co##on perception that resh is oten best or opti#al 6ita#in  content, as long as the resh un!ergoes #ini#al storage at roo# te#perature or heate!. +oss o 6ita#in  with ti#e !iers ro# one ruit to other un!er si#ilar storage en6iron#ents. 9hile boile! sa#ples cause signiicant loss o 6ita#in  in the ruits )Baria, "ncarna an! Ja!er, 200@. 4or ea#ple, han!ling, storage,  boiling, an! o(gen is the #ost !estructi6e ingre!ient in juice shoul! be !iscourage! ro# being !ispla( in the hot weather abo6e roo# te#perature in or!er to #aintain pro!uction concentration. .eferences P1Q   buba&ar, "l-sha$ an! u&ar, . buba&ar. )2012. ioche#istr( or ertiar( nstitutions. Banage#ent Networ& Aesources.a#aturu.p12=. P2Q   abalola, 8.8, ugbobo, 8., an! ara#ola, .. )2010. "ect o rocessing on the Vita#in  ontent o e6en  Nigerian Ireen +ea( Vegetables. !6ance Cournal o 4oo! cience an! echnolog(. 2)@. pp=0=-=05. P=Q   8. )200@.8icial Betho! <@7.21e scorbic ci! in Vita#in reparations an! Cuices: 2,@-ichloroin!ophenol itri#etric Betho!.8icial Betho!s o nal(sis o the ssociation o 8icial nal(tical he#ists.   nternational Cournal o he#ical an! io#olecular cience Vol. 1, No. 2, 2015, pp. 17-21 21 P;Q   erg, CB, (#ocG&o, C+, tr(er +. ioche#istr(. 5th e!ition.  New Dor&: 9 E 4ree#an )2002. 6ailable ro# http://www.ncbi.nl#.nih.go6/boo&s/NJ2115;/ P5Q   ethlehe# rown a#pbell an! 4arrel orrell. )201=.ntro!uction to 8rganic an! ioche#istr(.> th  e!. roo&s/ole. "NII" +earning. el#ont. 3. P@Q   a6e(, B9, Van Bonatgu B, an#atin B, Janellis , #irno N, enGie CC, train CC, 4a6ell , 4letcher C. )2000. lant +-ascorbic aci!: he#istr(, 4unction, Betabolis#, ioa6ailabilit( an! "ects o rocessing. C ci 4oo! gric. >0: >25R>@0. P7Q   u(, 4. Auur!, Coan Van osch,  Bartin +a#an, ert-Can otter Van +oon, 9i# E.C.. +inssen. )2000 Neuro#uscular 4in!ings in h(roi! (sunction:  rospecti6e linical an! "lectro!iagnostic tu!(. C Neurol Neurosurger( s(chiatr( @>750-755 !oi:10.11=@/jnnp.@>.@.750 P>Q   4ran&, .., luster, .C., ra&a&i, ., an! Burph(, .. )200;. Vita#in  an! 4la6onoi!s +e6el o 4ruits an! Vegetables onsu#e! in Eawaii. Cournal o 4oo! o#position an! nal(sis, 17, 1-=5. P<Q   Irano, . e ullio B.. )2007. scorbic ci! as a ensor o 8i!ati6e tress an! a Aegulator o Iene "pression: he Din an! Dang o 6ita#in . Be! E(poth @<: <5=-<5;. P10Q   Cohnson, 8jo Aoti#i Detu, ba(a Ce#i#ah 8loruntoba, &inta(o hristopher a#uel, eri&i. )201=. "ects o  Nigerian Bar&et torage on!itions on scorbic ci! ontents o electe! etrapa& ac&age! itrus 4ruit Cuice. Cournal o gricultural S iological cience  4eb 201=, Vol. > ssue 2, p17<.   P11Q   Jiple, 4. Jenneth. )2000. a#bri!ge 9orl! Eistor( o 4oo!. 2 Volu#e 2. a#bri!ge 3ni6ersit( ress. page-1120. P12Q   a!a(att(, .C., JatG, , 9ang D et al., )200=. Vita#in . Cournal o #erican oll.Nutr.200=.22 pp1>-=5. P1=Q   Baria, .Iil, "ncarna gua(o, an! !el . Ja!er. )200@. Tualit( hanges an! Nutrient Aetention in 4resh-ut 6ersus 9hole 4ruits !uring torage. C. gric. 4oo! he#. Vol 5; )12.pp;2>;-;2<@. P1;Q   Burcia, B. ., +opeG-(erra, ., BartineG-o#e, B., Vera, . B., S Iarcia-ar#ona, 4. )2000. "6olution o scorbic ci! an! eroi!ase uring n!ustrial rocessing o roccoli. Cournal o the cience o 4oo! an! griculture, >0, 1>>2R 1>>@. P15Q   Burra(, A. J., en!er . ., otha# J. B., Jennell( . C., Ao!well V. 9., 9eil . . )2012.  +ange Be!ical oo&: EarperUs llustrate! ioche#istr(. New Dor&, ND: Bc Iraw Eill Be!ical P1@Q   Aic&#an, C., ruhn, .B, an! arrett B. )2007.  Nutritional o#parison o 4resh, 4roGen, an! anne! ruits an! Vegetables . Vita#in  an! arotenoi!s, Vita#in ", Binerals an! 4iber. Cournal o the cience o 4oo! an! griculture >7: 11>5-11<@. P17Q   chorah, C,. owning, . iritsi et al., )1<<@. otal Vita#in , scorbic ci!, an! E(!ro scorbic ci! oncentration in las#a o ritical ll atients, # C Nutr @=:7@0-7@5.
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