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Energy pattern in transport sector is a key factor for Urban Air Pollution: A study on Dhaka City, Bangladesh

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Energy pattern in transport sector is a key factor for Urban Air Pollution: A study on Dhaka City, Bangladesh
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  Energy pattern in transport sector is a key factor for Urban Air Pollution: A study on Dhaka City, Bangladesh.S.M. Reazul Ahsan Research AssociateSERD, Energy Field of StudyAsian Institute of TechnologyP.O. Box -4 Khlong Luang, Pathumtani12120 Thailand.E-mail: rahsan@ait.ac.th Angshu Jyoti Fouzder Research AssociateD.Net (Development Research Network)6/8 Humayun Road, Block BMohammadpur, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.E-mail: fouzder@dnet-bangladesh.org  Abstract  Rapid urbanization and population growth in Bangladesh make the urban transport sector one of key factors for economic. The growing transport sector in Bangladesh mainly made up with old and low quality vehicles and useimpure diesel and gasoline as energy to provide low cost services. That transport sector is one of the main sources to pollute the urban air in Bangladesh. In Dhaka city, pollution severity occurs due to the high content of lead in gasoline,large number of high polluting vehicles, impure fuel, and no control on transport and traffic management. The salient parameters of air pollution for Dhaka are leaded fuel, PM, Dust, SO 2 of NO x , and CO. Emission control and development can only be ensured for Dhaka city when there is a strategy on energy consumption and pollutantemission.  Key word: Pollutants, Emission, Transportation. 1. Introduction: Urban living is the keystone of human ecology.Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidlyworldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are of creativity and technology, and are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sourcesof poverty, inequality and health hazards from the perspective of environment.Urbanization is intimately linked to greater transport development and transport related environmental problems. The world’s vehicle population has rise from 40 million in 1950 to over 400 million in 1990 and this rise indicates themagnitude of the burgeoning environmental problems due to vehicle use [1]. In Bangladesh thenumber of motor vehicles per 1000 persons rosefrom 0.38 in 1984 to 0.88 in 1988, 70% of thesemotor vehicles are in Dhaka city [2]. The emissionsfrom these motorized vehicles are one of the mainfactors of air pollution in Dhaka City.Being the capital of Bangladesh Dhaka is the hubfor the economic activities and development.Mostly all kinds of development and tradescentralized in Dhaka city. That patronized themanufacturing industries to locate around the city belt. Especially the brick fields and plasticindustries, mainly use coal, wood, waste plastic astheir main fuel, and emit CO, NOx directly to theair. Manufacturing industries also patronize heavytransport for their products along the city side.The aim of this paper is to get the air pollutionscenario in Dhaka city mainly from the transportsector and the relation with the pattern of energyused by this sector  . 2. Methodology: The study consists of two major steps x Identify the air pollution scenario of Dhakacity both from transportation sector. x Energy consumption pattern and pollutant emissionfrom this sector.This paper incorporates pollution and energy data tocome up with a link and to give a focus to this issue for Dhaka city. Figure 1 : Analytical framework.   Internal link.Main link.Issues identification and IdeaDevelomentLiterature reviewData collectionTransport demand Vehicle typesEnergypatternVehicle stokes.ExistingClimateObservation surveyAnalytical comparisonsPollutantsFuel typeAir Pollution and Energy Consumption 1  In Bangladesh the number of motor vehicles per 1000 persons rose from 0.38 in 1984 to 0.88 in1988, 70% of these motor vehicles are in Dhaka city[1]. The emissions from these motorized vehiclesare one of the main reasons of air pollution inDhaka City [2].The vehicular pollution completed related with the fuel they use and the age of thevehicles.Climate is another important factor to disburse the pollutants from the source to receptor.Mostly secondary data are collected from differentresponsible organizations working in Transport,Environment and Metrology. This paper tries todevelop a relation between air pollution and energyconsumption pattern with all those secondary data. 3. Analysis and discussion: Air pollution may be defined as an atmosphericcondition in which various substances are present atconcentrations high enough above their normalambient levels to cause harmful effect on people,animals, vegetation, or materials. ‘Substances’refers to any natural or manmade chemical elementsor compounds capable of being airborne.Unplanned economic development is one of themost important manmade factors that pollute urbanair for the developing countries, Dhaka city inBangladesh suffering the same. Following figureshows how the urban air qualities deterioratethrough economic activities. Figure 2 : Dispersion of pollutants througheconomic activities.Source: [3]Trans port and industry are the main two sectorsthose are responsible for air pollution in Dhaka cityare the triggering force for economic development.There fore it is important to assess the energyconsumption pattern of these two sectors and theemission from those sectors.Department of Environment (DoE) of Bangladeshhas conducted air quality 7 days survey in 1998 on amost busy commercial node in Dhaka city to assessthe real picture and to identify the cause of air  pollution. Table 1 : Ambient air quality data for Dhaka city.Location Ambient Air PollutantConcentration (g/m 3 )DatePMNOxSO 2 Weather Remark 02/12/982382.1137119.79Sunny03/12/982361.8641105.36Sunny06/12/982192.535297.32Sunny07/12/982185.094586.65Sunny08/12/982606.6163138.59Sunny09/12/982702.4497149.21Sunny    F  a  r  m  g  a   t  e   P  o   l   i  c  e   B  o  x .   D   h  a   k  a . 10/12/982785.4294153.04Sunny 7 days Average 2459.4361121.42Source : [4]DoE in Bangladesh has a standard for the ambient air quality for the urban area. The standard for PM is 400gm/m 3 , NOx is 100 gm/m 3 and for SO 2 100 gm/m 3 . Inthe real study it is found that only the NOx level is under the standard but others are more than the standard. DoEidentified that in the study location most of the vehiclesused impure diesel as their fuel and the minimum age of those vehicles were 7-10 years [4]. Therefore fuelquality and the vehicle age does matter for air pollution. 3.1 Transport sector In Bangladesh the number of motor vehicles per 1000 persons rose from 0.38 in 1984 to 0.88 in 1988, 70% of these motor vehicles are in Dhaka city [1]. The emissionsfrom these motorized vehicles are one of the mainreasons of air pollution in Dhaka City.The principle pollutants emitted by motor vehiclesinclude carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ),hydrocarbons (HC), sulfur oxides (So x ), and suspended  particulate matter (SPM). Additionally, the use of tetra-ethyl lead in gasoline as an octane-enhancer to improvethe anti-knock performance, contributes primarily to lead  pollution in the environment. Carbon monoxides mainlyemitted from motor vehicles and their fuel in the urbanenvironments. In Dhaka, motor vehicles are responsiblefor one-half of all man made NO x emissions; SO x arealso emitted from motor vehicles through fossil fuelcombustion in greater proportion from diesel engines.SPM again comes from diesel engines, and is composed of soot, unburned lubricating oil and fuel. Around 1,000metric tons of pollutants are pumped into theenvironment everyday in Dhaka, of which 70% comesfrom vehicles, followed by industrial units, garbage and other biomass burning by the slum dwellers and burningof coal and wood by the large number of brick makingfields in and around the city [5].Motor vehicles contribute about 55% of SO x, 70% of  NO x , and 60% of CO of the total [4]. Three wheelersdominate the motorized vehicles populations in Dhakaand most of them are powered by two stroke engines,which have high hydrocarbon emissions as well. Therelative contribution of different modes in air pollutioncan be easily understood by the following table: 2  Table 2 : Share of pollutants emitted from differentvehicles.Pollutants emitted from thevehicles (Percentage)DifferentVehicles.SO 2  NO x COCar232141Bus23324Jeep142218Truck17223Motor Cycle 405Human Haller 203Three wheeler mini taxi17326Source: [6]At present the estimated total number of differentmotorized vehicles in Dhaka City is more than 0.2million, and the non-motorized vehicles includingrickshaws are estimated to be 0.6 million. About150 vehicles move on the road per minute. Since previous five years (1992-1997) the growth rate of motor vehicles in Bangladesh is 10% per year [5].Those motor vehicles mainly used diesel and gasoline as fuel type. Very few of them used CNGas fuel type and there is no motorized vehicles used electricity as fuel. The government of Bangladeshtries to convert most of the public transport to CNGfrom diesel operated engine to mitigate air  pollution. But economical and political barriers, stilldoes not give a remarkable result in that case. Thenumber of registered motorized vehicles and their fuel types are shown in the following tables. Table 3: Number of vehicles and energy pattern in1992.Year 1992Vehicle typesDieselGasolineCNGPassenger Car 11,0504,9750Jeep/Stationwagon8,4256,8590Passenger Bus 67312000Trucks1,1512,7350Human haller 1,25625,5590Motor cycle 35,64553,3400Minibus1,2252,2780Source: [7-9]From the year 1992 to 1997 total 97113 numbers of motor vehicles increased in Dhaka City [8], butamong them only 2783 vehicles used CNG as aclean fuel. Which means with in 5 years only 3%motor vehicles were converted to clean fueloperated engine. Another 97% motorized vehiclesused high lead contains gasoline, impure diesel asoperating energy and increase the gaseous PM pollutant emission in the air. Table 4: Number of vehicles and energy pattern in 1997.Year 1997Vehicle typesDieselGasolineCNGPassenger Car 18,39325,3101,540Jeep/Station wagon 11,2258,315643Passenger Bus 8851,0110Trucks4,4317,3650Human haller 17,83544,9680Motor cycle 48,94856,7250Minibus2,4152,839600Source: [7-9]The motor vehicles which are using gasoline and impurediesel fuel emit black smoke from unburned fuels and  pollute the air at a high rate. A study was conducted in1998 to assess different pollutant emission from differentvehicles from per liter fuel. Table 5: Amount of pollutants emitted from differentvehicles per litter fuel.PollutantsVehicle Type Amount(gm/liter)Truck5.98Human haller 4.78Large bus 4.25Mini Bus 2.69Car2.85SO 2 Three wheeler minitaxi3.6Truck31.65Large bus 18.87Car10.39Human haller 1.99 NO x Three wheeler minitaxi2.39Mini Bus 276.2Human haller 268.3COThree wheeler minitaxi226.5Source: [6]The level of gaseous pollutants emitted from thetransportation sector in Dhaka city is much higher incomparison to Delhi or another mega city in South Asia.Following tables show the number of vehicles of Dhakaand Delhi using the different fuels and their pollutionlevel for a particular period of time. Delhi and Dhaka can be comparable in this study because they are havingalmost the same population size, socio-cultural status,economic growth. So the flowing analysis presents acomparison between Dhaka and Delhi in terms of energyconsumption and pollutant emission by the vehicles. 3  Table 6: Number of vehicles using different energyin different years in Dhaka and Delhi.Source: [8, 10]Though Delhi has a high number of motorized vehicles but Dhaka has the high growth rate inmotorized vehicles with in the mentioned year and the pollution (ton/day) from the motor vehicles alsovery high in Dhaka in terms of vehicle populationratio. The pollution level in Dhaka and Delhi isshown below. Table 7: Pollutants emission from different vehiclesfrom Dhaka in 1990 and Delhi in 1994.Pollutants from the vehicles (ton/day)CityPMSO2NOxHCCODhaka3.51.5161460Delhi10.38.96126.46249.57651.01Source: [2, 11]Most of the vehicles in Delhi operated by gasolinetherefore the emission of CO and NOx is muchhigher than Dhaka, even then Dhaka is in athreatened position. The total amount of emission in1996 was 413.2 tons/day and in 1990 it was only 95tons/day. Within 6 years the total amount of vehicular emission in Dhaka City just increased about 318 tons/day. [12].Therefore it means every year 53 tons of pollutantsadded in Dhaka city air from transport sector per day. If the rate remains same then by 2010 theamount of pollutants in Dhaka city air would be asfollows Figure 3: Calculated growth of pollutants by theyear 2010 in Dhaka from transport sector.The air pollution scenario in Dhaka city isdeteriorated every year because of the energy typeconsumed by the transport sector. The governmentof Bangladesh changing the policy since 2000 toadopt CNG as a clean fuel for the transport sector, but yet there is not enough success because of economic and political barriers. Therefore most of the vehicles are still using impure and exported dieseland gasoline as fuel and pollute the air. There is noalternative to mitigate air pollution from transport sector except introducing alternative energy type as fuel likeCNG and Electricity. At the same time the transport planning system also needs to change a lot, liketransition from small scale transport mode to mass transitsystem to meet the transport demand with minimum costand pollution. 4. Recommended approaches for air pollutionmitigation: The energy pattern that is used in the transport sector inDhaka city is the main reason for air pollution. So thesimple recommendation could be just like find alternative clean fuel as energy pattern for thetransportation sector. But there are also some other  barriers that may not allow clean fuel option to be theonly one recommendation to mitigate the air pollution. Inthis paper some recommendations for those barriers alsomentioned to ensure better urban transportation for Dhaka city with clean fuel as energy and minimum pollution. 4.1 Proposed recommendations:Vehicle/ Fuel Technology Changes:1. Improved Efficiency of Conventional Vehicles x Environmental friendly, light and fast motor vehicles; x Government needs to fix the vehicle standard and engine quality and carrying capacity; 2. New Vehicle technologies x Four stroke light vehicles transportation likeCNG operated minibus to reduce thedependency on non-motorized transport; x Introduce alternative transport modes, likecommuter rail and water transport to reducetraffic pressure on the road; 3. New Fuels x CNG, and LNG especially for public transportmodes; x Clean diesel and engine to minimize the air  pollution from the vehicles. Transportation System Improvement: x Smart highway, by Introducing Traffic lanes,Traffic signals lights, and road signs; x Smart vehicles; x Routing and Scheduling the traffic followespecially in the Peak hour to reduce trafficcongestion. Demand Management:Modal Substitute x Mass-transit, Transit, Ridesharing, Walking,Biking Improvements and Incentives;19921997CityDiesel Gasoline Diesel GasolineDhaka59,42596,94610,413214,6533Delhi12,068616,9228114,959020,98413                                         A  m  o  u  n   t  o   f  g  a  s  e  o  u  s  p  o   l   l  u   t  a  n   t  s   (   t  o  n   /   d  a  y   ) . GaseposPollutantnsEmission(tons/day) 4  x Inner-city Rail substitute, Using Radialwaterway as alternative mass-transitnetwork The Bangladesh government has policy toadopt CNG as an alternative clean energy pattern for the public transport sector for Dhaka city. Government first took theinitiative in 1997 to convert petrol cars to CNGoperated cars by the year of 2001 about 1200cars have been converted [4]. At the end of 2002 government import four-stroke 3 wheeler CNG operated taxies instead of two-stroke baby taxies under pollution control measure,thus at present about 8000 CNG operated vehicles are plying on the road in the city. Asfar as vehicles are concerned, there is extracost associated with CNG engine (or itconversion) the fuel control system and fueltanks, together these increase the cost of a basic vehicles up to 10-20 percent [4].So there are some economical barriers too tointroduce clean fuel as energy option for Dhaka city. Therefore government need institutional setup to manage the energy patternfor the transport sector so that it could beeconomically affordable and environmentalfriendly to ensure sustainable development for Dhaka city. 5. Conclusion: Clean and alternative energy option is the oneto mitigate urban air pollution, but complete planning strategy is important beforeintroducing clean energy for the transportationsector. Because there are economical,institutional and political barriers are there toimplement clean energy options. The planningstrategy should include cost effectiveness and affordability to adopt new technology for cleanenergy and to meet the transport demand bothfor present and future.The planning strategy needs to forecast thefuture transport demand and to restructure thetransport sector according to the demand withnew transport technology. The technology thatcan use clean fuel as energy option withminimum cost and meets the maximumtransport demand. Acknowledgement This paper is a secondary data based paper.Data has been taken from different researcheson Dhaka city transportation and even Delhi.However, authors are only responsible for theopinions expressed in the paper and theremaining errors. Reference: [1] GDMITS (Greater Dhaka Metropolitan AreaIntegrated Transport Study). 1994 . Working Paper  No.8, Environment. Planning Commission, Governmentof Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.[2] Rahman. A. K. (2000). “ Seminar on trafficmanagement in Dhaka Metropolis-Toda’s Burningissue”. 11 th September 2000. Road and HighwaysDepartment. Bangladesh.[3] GDMITS (Greater Dhaka Metropolitan AreaIntegrated Transport Study), 1999. Final Report. Vol.1. Database and Immediate Actions. PPK consultants PtyLtd, Australia, Delcan International Corporation, Canadaand Development Design Consultants, Bangladesh, November 1999.[4] Department of Environment (DoE), 2000. Reporton Air Quality Standard for Dhaka city. Dhaka,Bangladesh[5] CPD (Center for Policy Dialogue). 2001. PolicyBrief on Transport and Infrastructure. Prepared by Task Force on: Transport and Infrastructure, Dhaka,Bangladesh.[6] Jaigirdar, M.A. (1998). “ Environmental Impacts of Improved Bus Service of Dhaka City.” Unpublished MSc Thesis, Bangladesh University of EngineeringTechnology. Dhaka.[7] Bangladesh Bureau Of Statistic (BBS). 2001. Annual report on total registered vehicle population inDhaka. Dhaka, Bangladesh.[8] BRTA (Bangladesh Road Transport Authority),(2000). The annual registered motor vehicles in DhakaCity. Dhaka Bangladesh.[9] Monayem, M.A. (2001). “Evaluation of TrafficOperation Condition on Two Urban Arterials inMetropolitan Dhaka.” M.Eng. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of EngineeringTechnology.[10] UNEP, 1999. Environmental Impacts of TradeLiberalization and Policies for Sustainable managementof Natural Resources: A case study on Idia’s automobilesector, United Nations New York, USA.[11] CPCB, 1999. Parivesh, 6(1), Central PollutionControl Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests,Government of India, New Delhi. India.[12] Karim. M. M. (1998). Traffic Pollution inBangladesh & Metropolitan Dhaka a preliminaryInvestigation. Consultant Engineer, DainichiConsultant Inc. 3-1-21 Yabuta Minami, Gifu 500.Japan 5
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