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Fertilizer use in Asian agriculture: implications for sustaining food security and the environment

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Fertilizer use in Asian agriculture: implications for sustaining food security and the environment
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  Viterbo, ItalyMay 16-17, 1995Edited by P. Gruhn, F. Goletti, and R. N. RoyMarkets and Structural Studies DivisionInternational Food Policy Research InstituteandLand and Water Development DivisionUnited Nations Food and Agriculture OrganizationPROCEEDINGS OF THE IFPRI/FAO WORKSHOP ONPLANT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, FOOD SECURITY,AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:THE FUTURE THROUGH 2020  iTABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS................................................iLIST OF TABLES.....................................................iiLIST OF FIGURES...................................................ivFOREWARD.........................................................vWELCOMING ADDRESSby Carlo Perone Pacifico..........................................vii1. INTRODUCTIONby Peter Gruhn, Francesco Goletti, and Rabindra N. Roy.................1SECTION 1: SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION AND PLANT NUTRIENTMANAGEMENT: THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT........................72. FERTILIZER, PLANT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, ANDSUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: USAGE, PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGESby Peter Gruhn, Francesco Goletti, and Montague Yudelman..............93. PLANT NUTRITION MANAGEMENT IN THE FARMING SYSTEMS OF SEMI-ARIDTROPICS IN AFRICA AND IN ASIA: CONTRASTS AND CHALLENGES FORSUSTAINABLE AGRICULTUREby A.L. Angé...................................................234. INTEGRATED CROP NUTRITION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:TECHNOLOGY AND POLICY CHALLENGESby Jules N. Pretty...............................................44SECTION 2: SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION AND PLANT NUTRIENTMANAGEMENT: AFRICA.........................................935. LOW USE OF FERTILIZERS AND LOW PRODUCTIVITYIN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAby Wilfred Mwangi...............................................956. PLANT NUTRITION MANAGEMENT, FERTILIZER USEIN CROP PRODUCTIVITY, PROPOSED INNOVATIONS ANDINTEGRATION WITH FARMERS' PRACTICES IN ETHIOPIAby Tesfaye Negussie...........................................113  iiSECTION 3: SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION AND PLANT NUTRIENTMANAGEMENT: ASIA..........................................1457. FERTILIZER USE IN ASIAN AGRICULTURE:IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINING FOOD SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTby M. Hossain and V. P. Singh....................................1478. PLANT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABIILITYOF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN CHINAby Jin Jiyun and Zhang Guilan....................................1749. INTEGRATION OF VARIOUS INPUTS FOR SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION:ROLE OF FARMERS' UNIONS, EXTENSION SERVICES, AND THE PRIVATESECTOR IN THE PROMOTION OF SOUND INTENSIFIED PRACTICESby Abdul Majid.................................................19310. USE OF EXTERNAL INPUTS AND THE STATE OF EFFICIENCY OFPLANT NUTRIENT SUPPLIES IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS INUTTAR PRADESH, INDIAby H. L. S. Tandon.............................................199APPENDIX........................................................235CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: IFPRI-FAO WORKSHOP ON PLANTNUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, FOOD SECURITY, AND SUSTAINABLEAGRICULTURE: THE FUTURE TO 2020............................237PARTICIPANTS LIST: IFPRI-FAO WORKSHOP ON PLANT NUTRIENTMANAGEMENT, FOOD SECURITY, AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:THE FUTURE TO 2020..........................................241LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS............................................243LIST OF TABLESTable 3.2--Evolution of fertilizer use and food crop yields in Asia and in Sub-SaharanAfrica, 1980-1990...............................................37Table 3.3--Crop yields in China.........................................38Table 3.4--Plant nutrient content by nutrient source..........................39Table 3.5--Supplied dose of plant nutrients on the cropped area in China.........40Table 3.6--Scenarios for the development of crop production in the Gambia.......41Table 4.1--Modernist perspectives on future strategies for agricultural development.74Table 4.2--The impacts of green manuring of legumes on cereal yields...........75  iiiTable 4.3--A typology of participation: How people participate in development programsand projects...................................................76Table 5.1--Fertilizer consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa.....................105Table 5.2--Ratio of farm-level prices of nitrogen fertilizer to maize grain prices in Sub-Saharan Africa and other regions..................................106Table 5.3--Effect of price policy on the profitability of alternative maize technologies in110 on-farm demonstrations, Lilongwe, Malawi, 1990-1991..............107Table 6.1--Estimated cultivated area production and productivity in Ethiopia......131Table 6.2--Fertilizer consumption by peasant sector Ethiopia.................132Table 6.3--Fertilizer consumption by major regions.........................133Table 6.4--Average crop response to recommended rate of fertilizer, 1992.......134Table 6.5--Wheat and faba bean yields at Were Ilu, 1987, as influenced by surfacedrainage and fertilizer inputs......................................135Table 7.1--Trend in fertilizer consumption, Asia compared to other regions.......158Table 7.2--Trend in fertilizer consumption in major rice growing countries in Asia..159Table 7.3--Share of cereal grains in total fertilizer consumption in major rice growingcountries.....................................................160Table 7.4--Fertilizer use and productivity growth in cereals in major rice growingcountries, 1974-76 and 1990-92...................................161Table 7.5--Fertilizer response from national level time series data..............162Table 7.6--Estimates of fertilizer response from farm survey data..............163Table 7.7--Estimates of average and marginal productivity of fertilizer and technical andeconomic optimum rates of application..............................164Table 7.8--Elasticity of fertilizer demand with respect to prices, irrigation and adoption ofmodern varieties...............................................165Table 7.9--Response of rice yield to nitrogen application in different rice ecosystems,estimates from experiments in farmers’ fields.........................166Table 7.10--Estimates of fertilizer use (NPK/ha) in irrigated and rainfed rice cultivation inselected Asian countries.........................................167Table 7.11--Overview of policy changes in fertilizer sector, selected Asian countries............................................................168Table 7.12--Domestic retail prices of fertilizer compared to world prices, 1993....169Table 7.13--Nitrogen-rice price ratio in selected Asian countries...............170Table 7.14--Project increase in yield and fertilizer intake in cereal production to achievefood security by 2020...........................................171Table 8.1--Average yields of wheat and rice in China from 221 B.C. to the present.181Table 8.2--Nutrient consumption and contribution of organic manures in China...182Table 8.3--General statistics of Henan state related to wheat production........183Table 8.4--Nutrient balance in the agriculture system in Henan state, 1980.......184Table 8.5--Nutrient balance in the agricultural system in Henan state, 1992......185Table 8.6--Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on crop yields in a fixed site trial inZhengzhou, Henan.............................................186Table 8.7--Contribution of fertilizers to yields during 13 years at a fixed site trial inZhengzhou, Henan.............................................187Table 8.8--Nutrient balance sheet in a 13 years fixed site field trial in Zhengzhou,Henan, 1981-1993.............................................188Table 8.9--Fertilization rate for high yield wheat production in Henan state.......189Table 8.10--Fertilization rate for high yield corn production in Henan state.......190Table 10.1--The importance of wheat, sugarcane and rice in selected districts of westernUttar Pradesh.................................................212  ivTable 10.2--Contribution of area, yield, and productivity to sugarcane and wheatproduction....................................................213Table 10.3--Effect of different fertilizer applications on rice and wheat yields.....214Table 10.4--Effect of continuous fertilizer on rice and wheat yields.............215Table 10.5--Effect of irrigation, weed control, and fertilizer on wheat yields.......216Table 10.6--Expenditure on cash inputs for the sugarcane-sugarcane-wheat systembased on farm surveys, 1989-1990.................................217Table 10.7--Major crop-specific constraints...............................218Table 10.8--Effect of fertilizer intensity on paddy and wheat yields.............219Table 10.9--Resource requirement to generate NPK nutrient by 2000 and 2050...220Table 10.10--Nutrient balance after a sugarcane-sugarcane-wheat system in westernUttar Pradesh.................................................221Table 10.11--Soil nutrient balance after a one-year wheat-rice system in western UttarPradesh......................................................222Table 10.12--Effect of intensive irrigated cropping on soil nutrient balances......223Table 10.13--Low and high efficiency nutrient requirements to support grain yields............................................................224Table 10.14--Recent trends in some economic indicators of fertilizer use........225LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1--The plant nutrient balance system..............................19Figure 3.1--Fertilizer use and arable land per head in northern Asia,1960-90.......................................................42Figure 3.2--Fertilizer use and arable land per head in southern Asia,1960-90.......................................................43Figure 4.1--The impact of sustainable agriculture on yields in threetypes of agricultural systems.......................................77Figure 4.2--The conditions of sustainable agriculture.........................78Figure 6.1--Map of Ethiopia...........................................136Figure 6.2--Fertilizers used for cereals in Ethiopia..........................137Figure 6.3--Dispersed simple fertilizer management trial for teff cropfor 16 sites in 1993.............................................138Figure 6.4--Factor contribution to yield increased in teff in 1994...............139Figure 6.5--Dispersed simple fertilizer management trial for wheatcrop for 10 sites in 1993.........................................140Figure 6.6--Factor contribution to yield increase in wheat in 1993..............141Figure 10.1--The reason behind the need for intensification offoodgrain production in India......................................226Figure 10.2--Trends in fertilizer use and wheat yields in Meerut districtand nine districts in western Uttar Pradesh...........................227Figure 10.3--Relationship between fertilizer use and sugarcane pluswheat productivity in western Uttar Pradesh..........................228Figure 10.4--Crop and input investment incurred in a two-yearsugarcane-sugarcane-wheat system in western Uttar Pradesh...........229Figure 10.5--Possible causes of inadequate and imbalanced fertilizer use.......230
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