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Karen J. Grove, Ph.D. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Prepared for OECD: ICT and Initial Teacher Training Meeting Paris, France October PDF

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Karen J. Grove, Ph.D. University of Nevada, Las Vegas Prepared for OECD: ICT and Initial Teacher Training Meeting Paris, France October 2008 Field experiences are critical components as a means for: connecting
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Karen J. Grove, Ph.D. University of Nevada, Las Vegas Prepared for OECD: ICT and Initial Teacher Training Meeting Paris, France October 2008 Field experiences are critical components as a means for: connecting theory from university courses with real world classroom practice (transfer), constructing their understanding of teacher practice, establishing practices for future teaching, and... learning how to teach (Guyton & McIntyre, 1990) If use of technology is woven into field experiences, student teachers are much more apt to use it in their practice. Mentor teachers play a critical role in helping student teachers construct their understanding of teacher practice with ICT tools during field experiences. (Grove, Strudler, & Odell, 2004) Research on Field Experiences Survey research regarding field experiences can provide valuable information about the number of tools on site, the average hours of technical support, etc. But - it cannot tell us if, when, and how those ICT tools are used during field experiences to support active K-12 student learning For that - we need to hear from the voices of the student teachers Field Experience Settings Each setting is unique - two experiences in the same school can be quite different (Bullock, 2004) Universities often do not have a choice in selection of placement sites or mentor teachers (Doering, Hughes, & Huffman, 2003) Student teacher ICT use depends on a complex interactive relationship among factors such as: o expectations of ICT use during field experiences, o access to sufficient ICT tools, o technical and instructional support, o mentor teachers technology skills, knowledge and support (Grove et al., 2004) Focused Look at Selected Research Culling studies with student teacher input - o surveys - interviews - case studies To hear their voice on factors that impacted their ICT use during field experiences So we know what questions we should be asking The approach: Using a black box metaphor to examine inner workings of factors that impact student teacher use of ICT tools during field placements Field Experience Factors are presented in two areas: o Technology Contextual Factors o Mentor Teacher Influences Expectations for Use Access to ICT Tools Technical Support 1. Expectations for Use Should be in writing (explicit and clear) so that both the student teacher and mentor teacher clearly understand that using ICT tools is mandatory - not optional (Dexter & Riedel, 2003). Expectations should be supported at all levels: o university (program & faculty), o school district, o site leaders (principals), o mentor teacher, o student teacher. Is personal productivity with ICT tools a good enough goal? Should goal include personal productivity and use of ICT tools in lessons with students? 2. Access to ICT Tools Technology context at a site does affect whether student teachers use ICT tools (Dexter & Riedel, 2003) Insufficient access hinders use (e.g., labs that are already booked - or in another building) One computer in the classroom - ICT use is mainly for personal productivity Regular or ready access to computers during class supported higher frequencies of K-12 student use (Grove et al., 2004) o Nearby labs o Portable laptop carts 3. Technical Support Instructional support was a significant predictor of whether or not student teachers had their K-12 students use technology (Dexter & Riedel, 2003) Who provides it? (Grove et al., 2004) Cooperating teacher, Other on-site personnel, University resources Placement with a mentor teacher is a crucial cog in the preparation of student teachers (Doering et al., 2003) Do they have good skills with ICT? Can they model effective lessons with ICT? Can they provide instructional support and guidance to help mentor student teachers in connecting use of ICT tools with content area studies and learning how to effectively use the tools with K-12 students? (Grove, Strudler, & Odell, 2007) Summary Preparing student teachers to use ICT tools is clearly a complex process with a myriad of factors interacting to impact the outcome. To clarify current status, consider survey questions that can provide useful data with clearer insight into factors impacting student teacher ICT use in teaching during field experiences. Greater collaboration between teacher preparation programs and their school district partners has much potential for positive impact on this process. Evidentiary Studies Bullock, D. (2004). Moving from theory to practice: An examination of the factors that preservice teachers encounter as the attempt to gain experience teaching with technology during field placement experiences. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(2), Dexter, S., & Riedel, E. (2003). Why improving preservice teacher educational technology preparation must go beyond the college s walls. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(4), Doering, A. Hughes, J., & Huffman, D. (2003). Preservice teachers: Are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(3), \ Grove, K., Strudler, N., & Odell, S. (2004). Mentoring toward technology use: Cooperating teacher practice in supporting student teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37(1), Grove, K., Strudler, N. & Odell, S. (2007). Assessing technology integration in mentoring practices during student teaching: Multi-case analyses. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning Education, 3(1), Refer to accompanying paper for additional information and resources
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