Knowled = Informatio in Conyext: on the Importance of Semantic Contextualis in Europana

On the Importance of Semantic Contextualisation in Europeana " is about ideas and inspiration. It links you to 6 million digital items.“ This is the opening statement taken from the Europeana WWW-site, and it clearly is concerned
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  Europeana White Paper 1: Knowledge = Information in Context   1 / 19  Knowledge = Information in Context: on the Importance of Semantic Contextualisation in Europeana Stefan Gradmann, Berlin School of Library and Information Science / Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.   Stefan.radmann!" 1Europeana: for Whom and to What End? „ is about ideas and inspiration. It links you to 6 million digital items.“ This is the opening statement taken from the Europeana WWWsite !http"//$% and it &learly is &on&erned #ith the mission of Europeana ' #ithout% ho#e(er% being o(ere)pli&it as to the pre&ise nature of that mission.Europeana*s &urrent logo% too% has a programmati& aspe&t" the slogan “Think +ulture, &learly again is related to Europeana*s mission and at same time seems some#hat &loser to the point" *thinking* &ulture e(okes notions like &on&eptualisation% reasoning% semanti&s and the like.-till% all this remains fragmentary and insuffi&ient to a&tually &larify the fun&tional s&ope and mission of Europeana. In fa&t% the author of the present &ontribution is &on(in&ed that Europeana has too often been des&ribed in terms of sheer uantity% as a high (olume aggregation of digital representations of &ultural heritage obe&ts #ithout suffi&iently stressing the fun&tional aspe&ts of this endea(our.This &on(i&tion moti(ates the present &ontribution on some of the essential fun&tional aspe&ts of Europeana making &lear that su&h a &ontribution ' e(en if its author is deeply in(ol(ed in building Europeana ' should not be read as an offi&ial statement of the proe&t or of the European +ommission !#hi&h it is not0$  but as the personal statement from an information s&ien&e perspe&ti(e0rom this perspe&ti(e the opening statement is that Europeana is mu&h more than a ma&hine for me&hani&al a&&umulation of obe&t representations but that one of its main &hara&teristi&s should be to enable the generation of kno#ledge pertaining to &ultural artefa&ts.The rest of the paper is about the impli&ations of this initial statement in terms of information s&ien&e% on the #ay #e te&hni&ally prepare to implement the ne&essary data stru&tures and fun&tionality and on the no(el fun&tionality Europeana #ill offer based on these elements and #hi&h go #ell beyond the *traditional* digital library paradigm.2o#e(er% prior to e)ploring these areas it may be useful to re&all the notion of *kno#ledge* that forms the basis of this &ontribution and #hi&h in turn is part of the #ell kno#n &ontinuum rea&hing from data (ia information and kno#ledge to #isdom. Europeana White Paper 1: Knowledge = Information in Context   3 / 19  2Knowledge: a Challenging Concept „There are thing4si&05 #e kno# that #e kno#. There are kno#n unkno#ns. That is to say there are things that #e no# kno# #e don*t kno#. ut there are also unkno#n unkno#ns. There are things #e don*t kno# #e don*t kno#. -o #hen #e do the best #e &an and #e pull all this information together% and #e then say #ell that*s basi&ally #hat #e see as the situation% that is really only the kno#n kno#ns and the kno#n unkno#ns. 7nd ea&h year% #e dis&o(er a fe# more of those unkno#n unkno#ns.“8onald umsfeld on „analysis on intelligen&e information“% 6 th  :une 3;;3!http"//###.defense.go(/trans&ripts/trans&ript.asp)<trans&riptid=>?9;$ 7s illustrated by the abo(e (erbal struggles the former @- -e&retary of 8efense had to get hold of *kno#ing*% the (ery &on&ept of *kno#ledge* seems to be e)tremely diffi&ult to grasp. Therefore% at least in the kno#ledge management literature% most attempts to &on&eptualise kno#ledge ' rather than gi(ing a definition in the proper sense ' end up situating kno#ledge in a #ell kno#n &on&eptual hierar&hy and #hi&h is #ell summed up in ates !3;;A$. This so &alled 8IBW2ierar&hy !abbre(iating the terms 8ata% Information% Bno#ledge% Wisdom$ is usually tra&ed ba&k to T. -. Eliot*s famous lines “Where is the Cife #e ha(e lost in li(ing< Where is the #isdom #e ha(e lost in kno#ledge< Where is the kno#ledge #e ha(e lost in information<, !T.-. Eliot% DThe o&kD% aber  aber 19>?$Information and Bno#ledge Fanagement literature has added a fourth element to this &hain% namely data % and the su&&ession of the four elements is usually thought of as a &ontinuum% #ith no &lear binary transitions from one stage to the other. 2.1Data The &ontinuum starts #ith data % #hi&h ' in the &onte)t of information s&ien&e  are usually thought of as dis&rete% atomisti&% small portions of *gi(ens* !#hi&h is the etymologi&al root of *data*$ that ha(e no inherent stru&ture or ne&essary relationship bet#een them. 8ata e)ist at different le(els of aggregation and abstra&tion" the ra# data obtained from measuring% &ounting or sensor a&ti(ity are mostly aggregated to a degree #here regularities begin to o&&ur and these aggregated data thus ha(e a potential of being transformed into information. -till% e(en these higher aggregations of data share an elementary &hara&teristi& #ith ra#% unaggregated data" they ha(e no meaning in themsel(es.In a linguisti& metaphor data &ould be said to be on phoneti&al le(el. Europeana White Paper 1: Knowledge = Information in Context   > / 19  2.2Information The transformation to information  happens on&e patterns &an be dis&erned in these data ' and this is #hen they start being meaningful. 7t this le(el% data are organised into patterns pro(iding ' in the #ords of 7&koff !19G9$  “ans#ers to D#hoD% D#hatD% D#hereD% and D#henD uestions,.In terms of our linguisti& metaphor #e are no# on phonologi&al and le)i&al le(el. 2.3Knowledge #no$lede % then% is information that has been made part of a spe&ifi& &onte)t and is useful in this &onte)t. The &onte)tualisation pro&esses leading to a spe&ifi& set of information be&oming kno#ledge &an be based on so&ial relations !information as part of a group of people*s apprehension of the #orld% information present in the memory of a person$ or semanti&ally based !information related to &onte)tual information (ia shared properties and thus be&oming part of a semanti& *&lass* of information$.Hn this le(el of kno#ledge it be&omes possible% as #ell% to deri(e ne# kno#ledge !or at least ne# information$ from &ombined e)isting kno#ledge" a form of interpolati(e ' albeit (ery me&hani&al ' reasoning su&h as the one based on formal logi& in artifi&ial intelligen&e appli&ations.With kno#ledge #e &learly are on the synta&ti& le(el of the linguisti& metaphor. 2.4Wisdom (or rather thinking?) This is the last stage of the srcinal hierar&hy su&h as it #as first &on&ei(ed by 7&koff !19G9$ ' and by far the most diffi&ult to grasp. 1 In the summary of their literature re(ie# o#ley and -la&k !3;;G$ identify the follo#ing fa&ets of * $isdom *" • is embedded in or e)hibited through a&tion • in(ol(es the sophisti&ated and sensiti(e use of kno#ledge • is e)hibited through de&ision making • in(ol(es the e)er&ise of udgement in &omple) reallife situations • reuires &onsideration of ethi&al and so&ial &onsiderations and the dis&ernment of right and #rong • is an interpersonal phenomenon% reuiring e)er&ise of intuition% &ommuni&ation% and trust.+onsidering this (ery &omple) set of fa&ets of the *#isdom* notion it may be useful to redu&e the &omple)ity and &onnotati(e ri&hness of the   &on&ept. 7t least for the purposes of this &ontribution I #ill therefore narro# do#n the semanti&s of this le(el and rather use the term * thin%in  * instead to denote the kind of mental a&ti(ity #e &annot 1The srcinal 8IBW hierar&hy in&ludes a layer bet#een Bno#ledge and Wisdom #hi&h 7&koff !19G9$ &alls “@nderstanding,. That layer &ombines the reasoning fa&ulties I am situating on kno#ledge le(el and *thinking* in a true% srcinal #ay. I prefer to separate these t#o a&ti(ities and prefer to assign them to t#o different le(els of the hierar&hy% namely kno#ledge and #isdom. Europeana White Paper 1: Knowledge = Information in Context   ? / 19  !yet$ &onfer to ma&hines.   *Thinking* in the #ay #e mentally generate #orks of art or &omple) s&ientifi& theorems #hi&h are nondeterministi& and in this sense substantially different from deterministi& reasoning su&h as in most *semanti& #eb* approa&hes.Thinking e(idently #ould ha(e to be pla&ed on the *semanti&* le(el of the linguisti& metaphor% #hereas other aspe&ts of *#isdom* #ould probably ha(e to be pla&ed in the *pragmati&* realm. 7 graphi&al representation of the 8IBT part of the &ontinuum as it #ill be used as &on&eptual ba&kground of this &ontribution !and #hi&h is deri(ed from the one in -yed !199G$$ thus &ould look like in the figure belo#" Europeana White Paper 1: Knowledge = Information in Context   A / 19 &iure '( ) sim*lified +ie$ of the I#-"ontinuum
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