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life of Nagarjuna, a comparative study between Tibetan and other sources.

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there are many irrelevant source which contradict each other to write a proper life story. Tibetan sources mostly fill with so many mysterious thing and it is very difficult to accept in some way. but i have attempt to co relate all the available
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  Life of Nagarjuna; a Comparative Study of Tibetan and Other Sources ‘One of the wonderer and mysterious of later uddhism! " #charya Nagarjuna!s life have lots of contradictory sources   which lead many researcher to study from last one century about his life and wor$% &any scholars believe that there were more than one Nagarjuna who contributed in philosophy' alchemy' medical and Tantra% #t the same time few scholars favoring for only one Nagarjuna who was e(pert in all above subjects% Surprisingly in ")*+ &a( ,alleser concluded his survey as followed- .The systematic development of the thought of voidness laid down in  prajnaparamita sutras  is brought into junction with the name of a man of whom we cannot even positively say that he is the author of the wor$s ascribed to him- this name is Nagarjuna%/ * &ain reason of accepting more than one Nagarjuna is historian believe that 0ajrayana can be trace only in si(th century onward% Therefore Tantric wor$s attributed to Nagarjuna is also composition of Siddha Nagarjuna who also had a disciple called #ryadeva + % Tibetan biographies of Nagarjuna is arrange in such a way that we can hardly believe that there were more than one Nagarjuna% They themselves believe that Lord uddha himself taught Tantra% #ccording to Tibetan tradition Nagarjuna live around si( hundred years on the bases of prophesy of  Lankavatara sutra  and  Mahameghasutra % Those verses might add later as one of the earliest translated wor$s of 1unabhadra does not have those prophesies 2 % Time of Nagarjuna The two epistles 3  Ratnavali  and Suhrllekha 4 of Nagarjuna written to his patron was a Satavahana $ing% ,ithin the Satavahana domain' the motif of the uddha on a lotus pedestal that Nagarjuna " Thomas ,atters' On Yuan Chwang’s travels in India, 629-659AD vol III  % p%*5+* &a( ,alleser' The life of agar!una fro" Ti#etan and Chinese sour$es  3reprint' 6elhi- Nag' ")7)4' p%8% The srcinal article appeared in  Asian %a!or  ' 8ntroductory volume% 9irth #nniversary volume 3Landon' :robsthain' ")*+4' pp% 2*"2<<%+ #ccording to Tibetan tradition he received Tantric education from Nagarjuna at Sripravarta% &any Tantric wor$s are also attribute to him in Tangyur%2 Lan$avatarasutra translated by 1unabhadra 3 22+C=4 is one of the oldest translation available to us% This translation do not have that verses' it appear in the translation of odhiruci 3<"+ C=4 and Si$sananda3755752C=4% #ccording to ,alleser it may have added in fifth century C= as it contains a verse referring to &aurya' 1upta and Nanda $ings%  mention in  Ratnavali  only occur in =astern 6eccan at the end of the dynasty < % 8f we correlate information about Satavahana dynasty and sculptural references found in  Ratnavali,  then it is plausible that he wrote the  Ratnavali  within thirty year period at the end of second century in #ndra region around 6handya$ata$a 3#maravati4 > % Till *>< C=  Dasabhumikasastra  of Nagarjuna had already reached China 7 % So we can assume the date suggested by &r ?i 3i%e% "<5*<5 C=4 is more acceptable @ % ut another problem occurring here is confirmation of Nagarjuna!s death in Aumarajiva!s wor$ which claims' .Brom that leave $ing 3i%e% from Nagarjuna!s death4 until today one hundred years have passed ) % That mean when Aumarajiva translated the te(t and write biography between 25""+ C= it has passed around one hundred years of his death' thus Nagarjuna would have flourished in third century% Tibetan hagiography relied on the prophesies of  Lankavatarasutra  and other sutras which is difficult to trace any specific time% =very sources is indicating that Nagarjuna live during the time of Satavahana dynasty% 8n Taranatha!s history of 8ndian uddhism!' he write the name of $ing bdebyed3 Sam$ara4 "5  may have name of that particular $ing' who patronied him% 8n Satavahana dynasty around ten $ings appears the name of Sata$arini 3Duite similar to Sam$ara4' who was a powerful empire of a large $ingdom "" % Till now mostly accepted $ing 1autamiputra Sata$arini! as his patron' who rule between "5>"+5 C=% 9e was the follower of rahmanism but his mother was the follower of uddhism% Some believe Eajna Sri Sata$arni3 "7<*52 C=4 as the most li$ely candidate for patron "* % #ccording to &ahavamsa #ryadeva was the contemporary of $ing 0ohar$atissa at the beginning of the third < Foseph ,alser'  agar!una in $onte&t %aha'ana (uddhis" and earl' Indian $ulture,  3&otilal anarsidass publishers private limited% 6elhi' *55@4' p%>"%> 8bed%' p%>"7 =tienne Lamotte' The tea$hing of )i"ala*irti+ )i"ala*irtinirdesa,  Sara oin' trans% 3 O(ford- :ali te(t society' "))24' p% GC088%@ 8n ‘ histor' of Indian hilosoh' ! he has given an effective reason and logic to prove him between "<5*<5 C=%) Hoger Corless' The Chinese life of Nagarjuna/'in uddhism in practice' 6onald Lope' ed% 3:rinceton- :rinceton ?niversity press "))<4' p%<+""5 6% Chattopadhyaya' Taranatha!s history of uddhism in india' 3&otilal anarsidass publishers private limited% 6elhi' "))54 p%"5)"" 9arshacharita and Hatnavali have contained verses about powerful $ing who patronied Nagarjuna%"* Foseph ,alser' op%cit% >7 Note- 6ates are different in few histories  century% Therefore Nagarjuna can accept in second and third century% 9iuen Tsang named the $ing Ein Leng3 heading light4 who was contemporary of Nagarjuna "+ % Nalanda and Nagarjuna #ccording to Tibetan sources he was sent to Nalanda university fearing of his life by prediction of a soothsayer where he met Tantric master Saraha% 9e studied Guhyasamaja  and many other sutras% ,hen he selected as abbot he e(pel many mon$s who were not $eeping monastic code% &any Duestions arise from here% Birst' SarahaIHahulabhadra was a Siddha practitioner in eighth century "2  and Nagarjuna who write Aari$a has dead very time ago "< % Second' until about 2*< C=' Nalanda was not a strong monastic centre "> % Aumarajiva!s biography of < th century and he didn!t mention any relation to Nalanda% ,e may ta$e this biography as more authentic as he had only few generation gaps with Nagarjuna% Third' linage of Guhyasamajatantra  transmission is associate with Nagarjuna in Tibetan sources' who probably mi(ed up to the Tibetan with Siddha Nagarjuna 3"> th  among >2 Siddhas4 "7 % 8f Tibetan account of Nagarjuna at Nalanda is about Siddha Nagarjuna then we are getting crucial information about Siddha Nagarjuna% Bourth' Euan Tsang have spent enough time in Nalanda' studied treatises of Nagarjuna% ut' he did not mention any relation or local story about the person whose wor$s played such important part in curriculum% "@  Nagarjuna!s relation to Nalanda is only find in Tibetan   "+   A # Nila$anta Sastri ed .,  A Co"rehensive /istor' of India. :ublished under the auspices of the 8ndian 9istory Congress and the haratiya 8tihas :arishad% vol% *' 3 Culcutta' ")<74' p% +*+"2 Lal &ani Foshi  , 0tudies in the (uddhisti$ $ulture of india during the seventh and eighth $entur' AD ' 3&otilal anarsidass publishers private limited% 6elhi'")>74'p% *7" Chandra$irti 37 th  century4 have connection with Nagarjuna in transmission linage of 1uhyayasamajatantra% Therefore Nagarjuna must accept before him%"< Hoger Corless' . The Chinese life of agar!una1,in (uddhis" in ra$ti$e ' 6onald Lope' ed% 3:rinceton- :rinceton ?niversity press "))<4' p%<+""> Foseph ,alser' op% cit%' p% 7@"7 A% 0en$ata Hamanan'  agar!una’s hilosoh' as resented in the %ahara!naara"ita-sastra,   3&otilal anarsidass :ublishers :vt% Ltd%; 6elhi' *5""4' p%++> "@ Foseph ,alser' op% cit%' p% 7@  sources specially connecting to Guhyasamajatantra.  &ostly his activities in Nalanda from Tibetan hagiographies are related with Tantra% Therefore we can accept all the Tibetan account related to Nagarjuna in Nalanda are of Siddha Nagarjuna' which mista$enly mi(ed with each other ") % ecause of this Tibetan sources believe that Nagarjuna survived for si( hundred year% Lots of Tantric wor$s are attributed to him in Tangyur% Hesident place Hegarding the place of residence we have mainly three options 0idarbha' Nalanda and around Nagarjuna$onda site% ut till today no one has come with a satisfactory reason% Nalanda is only supported by Tibetan tradition of Guhyasamajatantra  transmission linage only and probably mi(ed with Siddha Nagarjuna% Ngawangpelden 3a &ongolian scholar of ") th  century4 on discussion of jamyangshaypa!s wor$ identified bedalya 3prophesy of  Lankavatarasutra 4 as 0idarbha of &aharashtra *5 % :% S% Shastri suggested that it could be ‘6ehali! near to Nagarjuna$onda site *" % 8f this hypothesis is true than many sources are indicating anywhere nearer to the site of Nagarjuna$onda% Euan Tsang said that Nagarjuna has living +55 li southwest of the capital of Southern Aosala *+ % #ccording to Semual eal blac$ bee 3:olomolo$ili4 is synonym of 1oddess 6urga or :arvati and hence polomo$ili is same form of :arvata 3mountain4% **  Therefore it can be well $nown Sriparvata or it can be Nagarjuna$onda also% Chandra$irti also told that #ryadeva become disciple of Nagarjuna at South 8ndia% There are many other sources claiming different places% ut' broadly we can say that he was living in South 8ndia% *+ 8t is confirm that he was patronied by a powerful $ing of Satavahana dynasty% ut there is not particular name given in any sources% Hajtanangini of Aalhana says that he was living at Sadarhadvana during the reign of 9us$a' Fus$a and Aanis$a% Aanish$a' the successor of ") 8bid%' p%7@*5 Feffrey 9op$ins  , (uddhist advi$e for living  li#eration3 agar!una’s re$ious garland  '3 8thaca- Snow lion' "))@4' p%"5*" :%S%Shastri  , 0tudies in earl' (uddhist "onu"ents and (rah"i ins$ritions of Andradesa ' 3 Nagpur- 6attsons' ")@@4' p% "7** Semul eal'*+ Aaren Lang'  Aruadeva’s Catuhsata*a3 on the (odhaisattva’s $ultivation of "erit and *nowledge ' 3Copenhanger- #$ademis$ Borlag' ")@>4' p%7  Aadphises 88 ruled between 37@ #6 to "5" #64% *2  9e ruled before Satavahana dynasty and can!t accept as contemporary of Nagarjuna% ut there is another Aanish$a' who is $nown as Aanish$a 88% 9e was one of the emperors of the Aushan =mpire from around **<J*2< C=% 9e succeeded 0asudeva 8 who is considered to be the last great Aushan emperor #lchemy 8t is fairly possible that there were more than one Nagarjuna 3i% e% from one to four4% ut nowhere in any sources we can find clue of it% Tibetan tradition do not ma$e any distinction between &adhyami$a and Tantric Nagarjuna% 0arious alchemical wor$s are attributed to an author bearing the name of Nagarjuna% *<  Traditionally considering same with &adhyami$a philosopher% ut many scholars believe that Nagarjuna 3alchemist4 was a scholar of eight century different from  Madhyamika  philosopher% Euan Tsang told about Nagarjuna who was e(pert in ma$ing ‘eli(ir of life! and ‘turning stone into gold! beside his philosophical e(cel% Similar story is also depicted in Tibetan biographies of Nagarjuna% Time should be shift as Euan Tsang $new about the tradition of alchemy or we have to accept two different Nagarjuna who were both e(pert in alchemy% Aumarajiva!s wor$ given credit of eli(ir of invisibility and  Prabandhacintamani  tells us about an ointment for flying% ,hereas  Kathasaritsagara  and rhatkathamanjari  have story of Nagarjuna!s alchemical feat of producing an eli(ir of immortality%  Rasaratuakara of Nagarjuna os celebrated Tantric treatise on alchemy% &any other wor$s li$e  Kaksaputatantra, !r"gyamanjari, #"gasara and #"gastaka *>  are also affiliated with him% ,or$s of Nagarjuna *2 Aanailal 9ara'  (uddhis" in India4 a histori$al surve'  ' 3uddhist world press' 6elhi""55<*' *55)4' p% <**< Su$umar 6att  , (uddhist "on*s and "onasteries of India, their histor' and their $ontri#ution to Indian $ulture, p%*7)*>  #"gasara  3contain recipes for improving the physical body4 and #"gastaka  3contains recipes for cosmetics and for the cure of disease of the hair4 of Nagarjuna have found in Nepal collection of manuscripts ' 9% :% Sastri' Nepal catalogue 3Calcutta' ")5<4' ")"<% 8% "+<; 88' 7<

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Jun 30, 2018
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