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LINKING HIGHER EDUCATION TO THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENDA: Does Leadership and Management Matter? Steven Sebbale Head, Human Capital Development Division UGANDA NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Kampala, 5 Feb Makerere University - Symposium on the Future of African Higher Education Leadership and Management Background (I) Vision 2040 NDP II MDGs SDGs UNDAF EAC Integration Emerging sectors (..P,O&G) National Research Priorities Background (II) That role of higher education in Africa s sustainable social, political and economic development is not contestable Strong association between higher education participation rates and levels of development; Raising the stock of tertiary education by just one year would lead to a 0.63 percentage point boost to income growth in the first year and an income gain of roughly 3 percent in the first five years. (Bloom et al., 2006). HEIs are critical in building the human capital that in turn builds the very institutions that are regarded as an indispensable factor of development (Kapur and Crowley, 2008). With expansion of the GKE, the knowledge produced by HES and the skills possessed by its graduates are becoming deciding factors in promoting economic progress and social welfare. Background (III) Higher Education: Universities Uganda s higher education still faces numerous challenges Funding Access Quality concerns Institutional capacities Weak research base Governance Funding Inadequate and undiversified funding regimes remain a major challenge to the development of more vibrant research and innovation infrastructure In the absence of private-sector funding and competitive grants, universities predominantly depend on dwindling public subsidies as well as unpredictable international donor support. This narrow funding base suggests that research and innovation systems face severe financial deficits and lack the capacity to formulate and drive their own internal research agendas. Public funding to higher education remains at 0.3% of GDP (below the recommended share of at least 1%) Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) must be integrated in the national development planning process. Over the years, the integration of STI in Uganda s national development planning has been more implicit, than explicit. Broad intentions to use STI as the vehicle for economic growth were evident in the country s comprehensive development framework - PEAP( /09), NDP I (2010/ /15) and NDP II (2016/ /2021) Recognition of STI as a sector endorsement of its role STI and Development Notwithstanding the increasing mainstreaming of STI at the national development policy level, HEIs in Uganda are poorly integrated into the emerging knowledgebased development paradigm and discourse. The disjoint between National-level policies and institutional realities represent a devastating challenge to the realisation of knowledge-based economies in Uganda Development Agenda National Vision 2040 Statement: A Transformed Ugandan Society from a Peasant to a Modern and Prosperous Country within 30 years. NDPII Theme: Strengthening Uganda s Competitiveness for Sustainable Wealth Creation, Employment and Inclusive Growth National Vision Uganda Vision 2040 articulates clear strategies and policy directions to transform the country into a competitive upper middle income country with per capita income of USD 9,500. Universities are the engine driving the national development agenda towards achievement of the National Vision ( either directly or indirectly) Vision : Attract top rated universities in specialized fields from advanced countries such as United States of America and United Kingdom to set up their campuses in Uganda in those fields especially engineering, human medicine, geo sciences, management, space exploration, Nano and bio technology, ICT. In addition, exchange programmes will be emphasized for students from the mother universities. Government will set up virtual replicas of these foreign universities in various parts of the country. VISION : To promote international and relevant research, top private companies such as Shell, Exxon-Mobil, Siemens, Microsoft, and Intel will be invited and facilitated to set up research and development centres within those university premises. These companies will carry out research in these university premises using students and other researchers Global competitiveness Uganda dropped eight places in the global competitiveness index from 121 (out of 142 economies) in 2011/12 to 129 (out of 148) in 2013/14. Uganda s Research Output and Impact In-house R&D Expenditure by Sector Sector Ush. Millions Percent Business Enterprise 67, Government 75, Higher Education 49, Universities 44, Teacher Colleges Technical Institutes 1, Colleges of Commerce Other institutions 3, Non- for profit 2, GRAND TOTAL 194, Types of Research Type of Research Ush. Million Percent Basic research 16, Applied Research 25, Experimental Development 7, TOTAL 49, HERD by Source of Funds Source of Funds Ush. Millions Percent General University Funds 13, University own funds (own generated funds) 13, Higher Education Vote Higher Education National (Excl. higher education vote) Other Higher educational institutions Government 5, Local Governments Government research institutes Funding from other national agencies 1, Science council funding 3, Domestic Business including Industry funds Private non- profit 1, Non profit institutions Donations and bequests from individuals 1, Foreign sources 27, GRAND Total 49, HERD by Field of Science Field of Science Ush. Million Percent Natural Sciences 5, Engineering and technology 6, Agricultural Sciences 5, Medical Sciences 17, TOTAL NSE 34, Social Sciences 5, Humanities 9, Total SSH 14, Grand Total 49, HERD by Multi-disciplinary areas Multi-disciplinary area of R&D Ush. Million Percent Primary Health care, community health, child health 10, Poverty eradication, wealth creation, social sciences 2, Tourism, theology, culture Fisheries, agriculture, crop management Water resources, climate change, environment Engineering Total Multi-disciplinary Research Expenditure 13, Other Research Expenditure 35, Grand Total 49, HERD by specific areas of national interest National Development Priorities Ush. Million Percent Poverty Eradication 8, Agriculture Modernisation 5, Medical Health 2, Energy 1, Millennium Development Goals 1, Social issues 1, Private sector competitiveness Total Expenditure on National Priorities 22, Total Expenditure on other areas 27, Grand Total 49, At institutional levels, the importance of knowledge economy amongst university stakeholders is strongly emerging, and is increasingly reflected in institutional policies or strategic plans (Bailey et al., 2012). However, awareness has not been institutionalized into policies and structures that can operationalize this new orientation. most institutions are still in the traditional mode of producing skills for the civil service (Bailey et al., 2012 p.104). No broad agreement between national and institutional levels that knowledge, and by implication higher education, is key to development. Ugandan universities cannot afford to remain mere teaching colleges consuming knowledge generated in other universities around the world. Universities are transforming themselves from basically teaching or regional universities to research-led institutions, global and international forces are emerging and have started to impact universities in Uganda. There is a gradual shift from student mobility (as the major manifestation of international education) as the case was in 20th Century to collaborative research, staff exchange, creating offshore campuses and internationalising the curriculum. A condition for universities contribution to development is the existence of a broad pact between government, universities and core socio-economic actors about the nature of the universities role in development As a core knowledge institution, the university can only participate in the GKE and make sustainable contribution to development of the academic core is quantitatively and qualitatively strong For linking universities effectively to development, a country needs various forms and methods of knowledge policy coordination. The connections between the larger policy context, universities and development are crucial Pillay (2010) Introspection Is there a role for universities in the national development plan? What policies, funding, structures and incentives are in place at the national and institutional levels which give expression to the role of HE in ED? To what extent is there coordination of these activities between the different national authorities and between the national authorities, institutional stakeholders and external agencies? Are development activities in the universities connected to external groupings and so these activities strengthen or weaken the academic core? State of the Economy The country still faces structural bottlenecks in the economy Dominance of primary commodities over industrial products (not outwardly oriented enough to penetrate global markets with high value products) Slower than desirable growth in the agricultural and industrial sectors New sectors that are not absorbing the rapidly growing labour force Capital markets that are not effectively intermediating capital Leadership The legal framework for the provision of higher education in Uganda is set by Universities and Other Tertiary Institutions Act of 2001 which seeks to : Increasing access to quality higher education institutions Ensure quality in all institutions Provide avenue for equating similar professional qualification from other institutions, Oversee establishment and management of higher education institutions. Leadership and Management The HES in Uganda has undergone a series of reforms since the 1990s Leadership and management of higher education Institutions have important roles in managing and coordinating complex changes both internal and external relationships have to be oriented towards a new goal (D. Li, 2010) Strengthening academic offerings, improving administrative efficiency and enhancing complementary missions Introspection.. What are the key aspects of higher educational leadership and management theory and practice (within the context of globalisation) and an increasing worldwide culture of market and government accountability? What are the moral and ethical aspects of higher educational leadership and management? What is my role and identity as an education leader and manager which can positively affect the departments and institution within which they work? Leadership seeing opportunities and setting strategic directions and investing in and drawing on peoples capabilities to develop organisational purposes and values Management achieving intended outcomes through the allocation of responsibilities and resources, monitoring their efficiency and effectiveness Leadership in Higher Education Leadership in teaching, Leadership in research, Strategic vision and networking, Collaborative and motivational leadership, Fair and efficient management, Development and recognition of performance and Interpersonal skills Ramsden (1998). Strong academic perceptions in Higher education: Poor communication between management & academics Top-down management style Little collegiality in decision making Cumbersome nature of administrative processes Deteriorating working conditions Poor time for a young person to become an academic Job source of considerable personal strain Minimal recognition of all else (but research) And so on There is a growing need to build capacity for HE leaders to prepare them for the increasingly challenging roles of the universities and to ensure that those who are in these crucial positions have the skills to lead successfully; HE leadership is critical for: Visibility Productivity Connectivity (Intra/extra knowledge networks) Leadership Development - Development of managerial skills that are relevant to all administrative levels Professionalizing academic administrations and building capacities relevant to efficient management and strategic planning. Develop skills in utilizing institutional research in planning and decision making Important tasks of HE leaders Planning: Preparation of Institutional Plan Lead research improvement and innovation Faculty improvement Supervise MIS and documentation and monitor institutional quality - the importance of Institutional Research Strategic data based decision making Making best use of increased institutional autonomy Strategic resource generation Team Building Quality Assurance Seizing opportunities and planning for long term growth Important tasks for leaders. Establish efficient and transparent institutional governance and administration Effective recruitment of academic staff: Merit and excellence should be the only considerations. Create enabling environment for excellent ideas and functionaries. Abjure patronage, favoritism Groom future leaders Establish and inculcate a culture of accountability Promoting and guiding excellence in teaching and research Assist researchers to expand their international networks Appraise researchers and appoint research managers solely on the basis of their research achievements and merits. Leadership Development A large part of STI success in Uganda s HE will depend on leaders Financing + Leadership Quality Good leader improved governance + strategic and improved resource generation - quality of institutions Good leader can transform institution that is not performing well Prevalent leadership deficit will hinder achievement of National STI goals and improvement of institutions Does HE Leadership and Management matter to National development? Yes, Increase the extent of institutional cooperation in support of research. Develop and implement mechanisms to support routine university - industry linkages. Develop a career structure for researchers/ teaching staff in universities. Provide more training for research managers and administrators in vetting research proposals; managing finance, staff and assets; and monitoring and evaluating research projects. Reduce the extent of wastage of researcher capacity and improve the work ethic of researchers Recommendations Support the exchange and mobility of students, scholars and academics between universities Promote and support higher education partnerships between Uganda and international universities, industries and governments Shape and drive international collaboration of higher education through policy dialogues and research Establish networks with the private/ business sector Respond to the community outreach! Birnbaum s Paradox High Education institutions are poorly run but highly effective If true, it may mean: 1. They are successful in spite of bad leadership/management ; 2. Leadership/management and institutional performance are not closely related; 3. They are successful because they are poorly led/managed. References 1. Bloom, David, David Canning, and Kevin Chan Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa. Washington, DC: Human Development Sector, Africa Region, World Bank. 2. Ramsden, Paul (1998). Managing the Effective University. Higher Education Research and Development, 17(3), Kapur. D and Crowley M (2008), Beyond the ABCs: Higher Education and Developing Countries, THANK YOU
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