Session 2 discourses of educational development

1. Session 2 Discourses of Educational Development Dave Bainton 2. Educational timelines…. Actors? Priorities Power Social impact 6. Discourses (of educational quality)…
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  • 1. Session 2 Discourses of Educational Development Dave Bainton
  • 2. Educational timelines…. Actors? Priorities Power Social impact
  • 6. Discourses (of educational quality) <ul><li>What are the shifting discourses of educational quality in your chosen context? </li></ul><ul><li>What influences these changing discourses? </li></ul>
  • 7. (Post)colonialism.. Cycles of response <ul><li>Narratives of power and response. We cannot but reference the past…. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance/development/overcoming the situation that is pre-given. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-colonialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Living history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ghosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legacies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hegemony </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Narratives <ul><li>Write a short narrative of the legacies that are alive in your chosen educational context…and how they connect with something that happens now.. </li></ul>
  • 10. Placing ourselves in this narratives <ul><li>Matjinge Secondary school, Zim, 1991-94 </li></ul><ul><li>VSO - Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Nation – building and school expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture, Building subjects </li></ul><ul><li>SAPs – maternal mortality doubling </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophically.. We both live out these dominant narratives ( and in doingso, recreate them </li></ul>
  • 11. Narratives 2 <ul><li>Write a short narrative that places your own experiences in context of a dominant discourse – as teacher, as student, your own, your grandmothers…. </li></ul>
  • 12. International agendas <ul><li>Three key texts… </li></ul><ul><li>Jomtien (1990) World Declaration on Education For All - Meeting Basic Learning Needs (and framework for Action) </li></ul><ul><li>Dakar framework for Action (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>MDGs </li></ul>
  • 13. International Policy <ul><li>1. World Declaration on Education for All </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality as meeting basic learning needs; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced environment for learning (nutrition, health care, and general physical and emotional support). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. Discourse Analysis of the text <ul><li>Key phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Is this universal? </li></ul><ul><li>Critique… </li></ul>
  • 15. International Policy <ul><ul><li>2. Dakar Framework for Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Says a lot about quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality at heart of education. Quality education satisfies basic learning needs, enriches lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students, teachers, learning methods, learning facilities, curriculum, language of instruction, environment (safe, gender-sensitive), assessment of learning outcomes, management, relationship with community & cultures. </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Dakar (2000) EFA Goals <ul><li>(i) expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality; </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes; </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults; </li></ul><ul><li>(v) eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality; </li></ul><ul><li>(vi) improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. </li></ul>
  • 17. International Policy <ul><li>3. MDGs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Say very little about quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All children should complete full cycle of primary education. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender parity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. EFA and Quality? <ul><li>Quality vs. Quantity issue (quality discourse is response to EFA discourse) </li></ul><ul><li>Is it feasible to implement quality improvements alongside expansion? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gains in quantity come at cost to quality </li></ul><ul><li>2.Targets for expansion are unachievable. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Is international emphasis on quality being implemented at country level? </li></ul>
  • 19. Zones of Exclusion (Lewin 2007)
  • 20. Lewin (2007) Compare 37(5) <ul><li>Access-Quality relationship </li></ul><ul><li>the majority not enrolled have attended & dropped out; </li></ul><ul><li>many more enrolled but not attending regularly; </li></ul><ul><li>amongst those enrolled & attending many learning little – ‘silently excluded’; </li></ul><ul><li>Primary enrolment ratios relate to secondary enrolment ratios through teacher supply & impact of transition rates. </li></ul>
  • 21. GMR 2009 Overcoming Inequality: Why Governance matters <ul><li>No coincidence that GMR focuses on inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Quality/inequality/access/expansion and differential access… </li></ul><ul><li>Schooling and social cohesion? Social rupture? </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>There has been remarkable progress towards some </li></ul><ul><li>of the EFA goals since the international community </li></ul><ul><li>made its commitments in Dakar in 2000. Some of the </li></ul><ul><li>world’s poorest countries have demonstrated that </li></ul><ul><li>political leadership and practical policies make a </li></ul><ul><li>difference. However, business as usual will leave </li></ul><ul><li>the world short of the Dakar goals. Far more has to </li></ul><ul><li>be done to get children into school, through primary </li></ul><ul><li>education and beyond. And more attention has </li></ul><ul><li>to be paid to the quality of education and learning </li></ul><ul><li>achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress towards the EFA goals is being undermined </li></ul><ul><li>by a failure of governments to tackle persistent </li></ul><ul><li>inequalities based on income, gender, location, </li></ul><ul><li>ethnicity, language, disability and other markers </li></ul><ul><li>for disadvantage. Unless governments act to reduce </li></ul><ul><li>disparities through effective policy reforms, the EFA </li></ul><ul><li>promise will be broken. </li></ul><ul><li>Good governance could help to strengthen </li></ul><ul><li>accountability, enhance participation and break </li></ul><ul><li>down inequalities in education. However, current </li></ul><ul><li>approaches to governance reform are failing </li></ul><ul><li>to attach sufficient weight to equity. </li></ul>
  • 23. Discussion <ul><li>Do you agree with the GMR? </li></ul><ul><li>What role governance? </li></ul><ul><li>Are national governments to blame for not taking inequality seriously enough? </li></ul>
  • 24. For next time…Quality frameworks <ul><li>a) Send me your personal piece if not done so already </li></ul><ul><li>b) Read, </li></ul><ul><li>Barrett,A., Chawla-Duggan, R., Lowe, J., Nikel,J., Ukpo, E. (2006), Review of the ‘international’ literature on the concept of quality in education , Edqual. Available to download at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>c) Either… </li></ul><ul><li>write up and send me the narrative that you wrote today ( </li></ul><ul><li>OR find one other article that you enjoy on the topic of frameworks for education quality. Write a short review of this article. Send me the reference for the article ( or the article itself) and your review piece. </li></ul>
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