Session 7 Initiatives - Resistance Or Reproduction After

1. Initiatives Resistances or Reproduction 2. Resistances and Reproductions <ul><li>Anthonio Gramsci (1891-1937). Cultural Marxist…
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  • 1. Initiatives Resistances or Reproduction
  • 2. Resistances and Reproductions <ul><li>Anthonio Gramsci (1891-1937). Cultural Marxist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistances… but always defined against/by the dominant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistances try to do differently, but always bear the trace of the dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THEREFORE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always a possibility of reproducing the inequalities, even as we move against them </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Solomon Islands ‘Kastom’ (Custom) <ul><li>‘ Shortly after installing me in the house they had built for me at ngarinasuru, a thousand feet up the mountain wall rising above Sinalagu Harbour, the Kwaio commenced construction of a large ‘Committee House’ adjacent to mine - in what I foolishly thought then was an adjunct to my project. In the subsequent eighteen months what Kwaio called the ‘sub-district committee’ met at ngarinasuru every Tuesday entailing a gathering of scores or sometimes hundreds of people. The kwaio leaders of devoted themselves to straightening out Kastom, ‘custom’ through endless discussions, debates and sessions of litigation. Kastom - centrally comprising genealogies, lists of lands, and lists of ancestral taboos - was to be written down and I was cast as primary agent in this process. …. </li></ul><ul><li>Although initially I had thought that the ‘Committee House’ was constructed as an adjunct to my ethnographic project I eventually realised that I had been incorporated into their project.’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Keesing, 1994: 42) </li></ul>
  • 4. CASE 1: Operation New Hope SECMOL (Ladakhi NGO) Ladakhi dept of Education Village Education Committees (VECs) In 1996-98, 95% of Ladakhi students failed the state 10th class exams every year
  • 5. Objectives <ul><li>Mobilised parents as political agent through formation of VECs </li></ul><ul><li>VEC training – accounting, problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>New textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>English Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Training of Teachers </li></ul>
  • 6. BUT <ul><li>Generated ‘buy in’ to an education system… </li></ul><ul><li>SO… discourse of a ‘good education’ become dominant.. </li></ul><ul><li>SO.. People send to private school/out of village </li></ul><ul><li>AND.. Loss of social cohesion/school closure etc </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t say this is a worse situation.. But not the intended consequences </li></ul>
  • 7. CASE 2: Tibetan Nomadic Education in Ladakh <ul><li>Schools for Tibetan Diaspora </li></ul><ul><li>In Ladakh these are Nomads on Tibetan Plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Schools run by an NGO – Tibetan Children’s Village </li></ul><ul><li>Tibetan Government in Exile promotes an early years Montessori curriculum for three years pre-school – as a more child centred approach. </li></ul>
  • 8. BUT <ul><li>For Tibetan Nomads in Ladakh. Parents still Nomad in Tibetan Plateau. </li></ul><ul><li>So leave children in school for 8 months each year </li></ul><ul><li>Remote school for preschool to Year 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Children from age three - eight are therefore left with 1 or 2 teachers. 70 children sleep in one room. No running water at the school. </li></ul>
  • 9. From TCV website Child in Changtang TCV school 2008 Was having three year olds lodging with few carers the intention of this initiative? (Should say that they said they enjoy it at the school)
  • 10. Issues? <ul><li>Who funds? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the main actors </li></ul><ul><li>What are the role of the different actors? </li></ul><ul><li>What is success here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the core problem understood to be? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the risks? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the possible unintended consequences </li></ul>
  • 11. Criteria for Successful Projects Time Purpose – does it fit? is it correct? Acceptance by all actors Practical Has clear benefits Fits the values of the school Is holistic Affordable Contains evaluation/reflection Good planning/management Acknowledges relaity Clear identification of problem Acknowledgement of historical context Consider side effects Does no harm for minorities
  • 12. Learning Lessons <ul><li>What do these stories tell us about.. </li></ul><ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>6. </li></ul><ul><li>Each group discuss one of these dimensions.. What lessons can we learn for success? </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with three key recommendations </li></ul>
  • 13. Your own initiatives <ul><li>Learn lessons from this to design an initiative in your own case study area… what features will it have? </li></ul>
  • 14. Formative pieces <ul><li>A personal piece on your engagement with the topic of quality Education </li></ul><ul><li>A review of an academic paper </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis of the educational legacies in your case study context </li></ul><ul><li>A model of quality education applicable in your case study context </li></ul><ul><li>A critique of an existing initiative implemented in your case study context </li></ul><ul><li>A biographical narrative of a person from your case study target group </li></ul><ul><li>A literature review of an area relevant for your case study. </li></ul><ul><li>A group class presentation of what quality education would mean in a specific context in a low –income country. </li></ul>Session 9/10 today Drafted last week Anytime Will discuss now DONE
  • 15. Literature review Process <ul><li>Each person </li></ul><ul><li>chooses a topic </li></ul><ul><li>develops a list of references for the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a short commentary that places these articles in context. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a mapping exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the Blackboard folder </li></ul>
  • 16. Remaining Sessions <ul><li>Session 8 – Monday 16 th March 2-4pm </li></ul><ul><li>Research into Practice – knowledge production for educational change </li></ul><ul><li>Session 9/10 Wed 18 th March – 1-5pm </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations/Review/Assignments </li></ul>
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