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The effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on United Arab Emirates English as a foreign language (EFL) school students' achievement and attitude.

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This study investigated the effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on elementa
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  The effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)on United Arab Emirates English as a foreign language(EFL) school students' achievement and attitude. This study investigated the effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on elementary-prep school students' improvement in English as a foreign language (EFL EFL - Extended FortranLanguage ). Eighty-three students in Al-Tamayoz Elementary-prep School, United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates, federation of sheikhdoms (2005 est. pop. 2,563,000), c.30,000 sq mi (77,700sq km), SE Arabia, on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. , were selected and divided intoexperimental and control groups (43 and 40 participants respectively). Results of Analysis of  variance (ANOVA anovasee analysis of variance. ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there ) showed a significant difference between CALL users andnonusers in favor of the experimental group (p < .05). In addition, a questionnaire was administeredto CALL users to investigate their attitude, perceived utility, and intention to use CALL in the future.Students in the experimental group had a positive attitude toward CALL, perceived its utility forhelping them learn EFL, and had a strong intention to use it in the future. Results of this study haveprovided evidence of the effect of CALL on learning English as a foreign language. Implications andrecommendations for future research are presented.**********Computer-Assisted Language Learning ''This article or section is being rewritten atComputer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning inwhich computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually  (CALL) is a technique for using technology in the field of languagelearning. Many studies worldwide have been conducted to investigate the effect of CALL on learninglanguages. Research results demonstrated a positive effect of CALL on students' learning andlanguage competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heardon the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legallygiven on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like. Â    2. .In the context of UAE (Uninterruptible Application Error) The name given to a crash in Windows 3.0.In subsequent versions of Windows, a crash was called a General Protection Fault, ApplicationError or Illegal Operation. See crash in Windows and abend. , studies involving CALL use areminimal. Almekhlafi (2004) investigated the effect of interactive multimedia (IMM IMMSee: International Monetary Market ) CD-ROM CD-ROM: see compact disc.CD-ROM   Â in full compact disc read-only memoryType of computer storage medium that is read optically (e.g., by a laser).  on the achievement of sixth grade students in relation to their learning styles. Results showed no significant differencebetween the two groups in the overall achievement. However, results showed that field-independentlearners scored significantly higher than field-dependent (1). One of the recommendations stated inthe study was that IMM should be investigated as an individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize  tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es1. To give individuality to.2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.3.  learning tool. Therefore, this study focused on independent CALL use by elementary-prep schoolstudents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It investigated the effect of CALL on students'achievement of English as a foreign language (EFL) and their attitude toward CALL use. According to according toprep.1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.2. In keeping with: according to instructions.3. Â Wikipedia encyclopedia encyclopedia, compendium of knowledge, either general (attempting tocover all fields) or specialized (aiming to be comprehensive in a particular field). Encyclopedias andOther Reference Books Â (2005), CALL is defined as an approach to language teaching and learning in which computertechnology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcementreinforcement /re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of astimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whetherpositive to desirable events, or , and assessment of material to be learned, usually including asubstantial interactive element. In the light of this definition and for the purpose of this study, theresearcher defines CALL as the use of multimedia CD-ROM combining text, pictures, audio, and video files for the purpose of teaching English as a foreign language TEFL or Teaching English as aforeign language refers to teaching English to students for whom it is not their mother tongue. TEFLcan take place in English-speaking regions, for example in language schools or summer camps orbefore the start of a university degree, but .REVIEW OF THE LITERATUREResearch on the effect of technology in general on teaching and learning has been conducted andcontinues to be investigated. One of the most prominent fields of research has been on interactivemultimedia and its effect on leaning in different fields including language learning. Literature reviewfor the purpose of this study focuses on two domains (a) multimedia and language learning andteaching, and (b) CALL.  The Use of Multimedia in Teacher EducationMany researchers have called for and emphasized the importance of the inclusion of technology inteacher education (Volk, 2000; Gentile, Lonberger, Parana, & West, 2000; Chester, 2001;Schnackenberg, Luik, Nisan, & Servant, 2001; & Berlin & White, 2002). Educational researchinvestigating the utility of technology for learning and teaching has been continuous for severaldecades. One form of this integration is with the use of multimedia. The educational benefits of multimedia are well documented (Moore, 2000). Multimedia has been used with student teachers toimprove their training and hence the quality of education (Almekhlafi, 2004). However, multimediaresearch was not always consistent in its results. Some studies yielded positive effect (Soboleva &Tronenko 2002; Moreno, Mayer, Spires, & Lester, 2001; Frear & Hirschbuhl, 1999; Vignola, Kenny, Andrews, & Schilz, 1999; James, 1999; Vrtacnik et al., 2000; Buckley, 2000; Wydra, 2001; Cairncross& Mannion, 2001; Almekhlafi, 2001), while others did not (Smith & Woody WoodySlang to describe when the market has a strong and quick upward movement.Notes:For example, you'll hear the market has a woody, when the market is performing well... seriously,we don't make this stuff up. , 2000; McKethan, Everhart, & Sanders San´dersn. 1. An old name of sandalwood, now applied only to the red sandalwood. See under Sandalwood. ,2001; Vichitvejpaisal et al., 2001; Nutta et al., 2002; & Hayes, Taub, Robinson III, & Sivo, 2003).In the field of language learning, multimedia has been investigated by many researchers. Resultsindicated a positive effect of multimedia on learning languages (Liou, 1995; Johnston & Milne, 1995; Asay, 1995; Chun & Plass, 1996; Al-Segheer, 2001; Tsou, Wang, & Li, 2002; Noriko, 2002).Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) ResearchCALL research has been ongoing for decades investigating CALL use in different contexts and withdifferent languages worldwide. Its potential for learning and teaching in the field of foreignlanguages has been discussed and documented by many researchers (Crosby, 1997; Peterson, 1998;Charischak, 2000; Vrtacnik et al., 2000; Ayres, 2002; Nesselhauf & Tschichold, 2002; Egbert,Paulus, & Nakamichi, 2002; Robert, 2002; Cushion & Dominique, 2002; Schwienhorst, 2002; Jung,2002; Bayraktar, 2002; Chika-matsu, 2003; Fenfang, 2003).Charischak (2000) stated that for long time, basic drill and practice software programs dominatedthe market in CALL. Supporting this claim, Robert (2002) pointed out that the use of computers toassist learners in their language studies has increased phenomenally over the past decade.Cushion and Dominique (2002) described how recent technological developments have provided thepossibility of overcoming technical problems in conjunction with the Java programming languageand the Unicode character numbering system. Schwienhorst (2002) discussed CALL and focused onthe benefits of virtual reality environments, particularly for foreign language contexts.For many years, foreign language teachers have used the computer to provide supplementalexercises. Recently, due to technology advancement, teachers started to consider the use of computers as an essential part of daily foreign language teaching and learning. Technology has thepotential to play a major role in foreign language teaching and learning. A lot of attention has beenpaid to the use of CALL in foreign languages teaching and learning.  In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; in other words, we are broke put differently , CALL gained considerable attention from different entities including researchersand writers. Peterson (1998) stated that CALL has developed from small beginnings into a majorelement in many university language programs in Japan. The number of individual educatorsincorporating CALL materials into their classes has increased markedly. This increase of interest inCALL, and educational technology in general, has also been manifested in the increase in thenumber of CALL facilities created within universities and schools.Some writers devoted whole books for the discussion of CALL. For example, Kulik and Kulik (1991)stated that a meta-analysis of findings from 254 controlled evaluation studies showed that computer-based instruction (CBI CBIabbr.cumulative book indexCBI Confederation of British IndustryCBI n abbr (= Confederation of British Industry) -> C.E.O.E. ) usually produces positive effects onstudents. The studies covered learners of all age levels from kindergartenkindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebeldesigned (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of theelementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be  pupils to adultstudents.In the year 1997, The Computer Assisted Language Learning Journal devoted a special issue, The virtual learning environment, reviewed by Crosby (1997) for CALL environment and effect onlearning and teaching. Following the same path, Levy (1997) wrote Computer Assisted LanguageLearning: Context and Conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize   v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es v.tr.To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: , a discussion of CALL including a historical review of CALL projects from the 1960s to the 1990s.Conrad (1996) noted that there had been a meager mea·ger also mea·gre  adj.1. Deficient in quantity, fullness, or extent; scanty.2. Deficient in richness, fertility, or vigor; feeble: the meager soil of an eroded plain.3.  output of CALL effectiveness research published by the recognized second language acquisition journals, and that the 19 empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when theresearch ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientificmethod that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence.  hedid uncover represent almost as many different specific areas of CALL applications. Research
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