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The Fighting Ground Creek quartz roasting pits and the early importation of gold processing technology into Australia

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The Fighting Ground Creek quartz roasting pits and the early importation of gold processing technology into Australia
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  USTRALASIANHISTORJCALARCHAEOLOGY, 18, 2000 TheFightingGroundCreekquartzroastingpitsandtheearlyimportation of goldprocessingtechnologyintoAustralia 1850-1860 DENISGOJAKADCAITLINALLE The FightingGroundCreekquartzroastingpitscomplexnearHillEnd in centralwestNewSouth Wales wasestablished in 1855 to support reef miningontheTambarooragoldfield.It is one of theoldestremainingintactgoldrushsitesandrepresentsone of thefirstattempts to process reef gold in Australia. With kilns jar roastinggold-bearingquartz,asophisticatedbatteryanddamsystem for crushingandwashingtheoreandworkers'houses,thecomplexprovidestangibleevidence of theprocess of technologicalinvestmentanddevelopmentduringthisveryearlystage of Australia s goldmininghistory.Itsearlyclosure,onlyeighteenmonthsafteritwasestablished,alsoposesinterestingquestionsabouttheprocessesandknowledgerequired for successfullyintroducingmethodsdevelopedelsewhere.Thispaperoutlinesthehistoryandarchaeology of thecomplex.Italsoreports on experiments in roastingoresamplesandusingthese to interprettheoperation of thequartzroastingpits. The complexattests to thenumber of factorsthathadasignificantinfluence in thesuccess of technologicaltransfer to Australia. The intactness of thecomplexattractedsomeofthefirstformalisedinterest in historicalarchaeology in Australia in theearly1970s,althoughonlyconservationplanningin 1997 establishedthefirstintegratedarchaeologicalandhistoricalrecord. PayablegoldwasdiscoveredintheTambarooraandHillEndgoldfieldsbymid-1851duringtheearlymonths of Australia'sfirstgoldrush.Between1851andtheearly1860salluvialminingwasthepredominantoccupationontheTambaroorafields,buttheearlydetection of reef goldstimulatedasteadyinterest in theexploration of auriferousreefs.Asaresult,theTambaroorafieldbrieflybecameone of therichestandmostdependable in thecolony.Bythelate1860s reef exploitationhademergedasthemostpopularandprofitablemethod of mining,whichsetconditionsforthesecond,largergoldrush of the1870swhenHillEndpeaked in sizeandprosperity. Reef miningandorecrushingactivitiesarerecordedontheTambaroorafieldsasearlyas1852.This is generallyheldtobethelocation of thefirst reef mining in Australia. Reef explorationspreadsouth to Tambaroorafromthesite of thefirstdiscovery of goldatHargraves(the 'Kerr hundredweight')withthepromise of a'goldenriver' of orerunningnorth-souththroughtheTambaroorafields.'Theextracapitalandskillrequiredfor reef miningledtoarchaeologydemonstratestheparticulardifficultiesthatpoorunderstanding of theweatherandgeologyplaceduponimportedtechnologyandthelimitedbasisonwhichdecisionsaboutinvestmentandprocessweremade.Establishedsoonafterthestart of goldmining in Australia in 1851,thequartzroastingpitscomplexillustratestheapplication of technologydevelopedinenvironmentsthatdifferedmarkedlyfromAustralianconditions. The development ofthis industrialcomplexreflectstheapplication of Britishcapitalandmachineryanddesignsfromaroundtheworldinanoptimistic,butultimatelyunsuccessful,attempttomaximisetheprofitsfromthegoldfield.Aninterestingreflectionuponthemorerecenthistory of thesiteisthattheroastingpitscomplexwasthelocation of one of thefirstformalhistoricalarchaeologicalinvestigations in Australia.Althoughtheinvestigationitselfwasrelativelyminor,thecomplexhasapresenceintheearlyhistory of ourownprofessionthatdeservesrecognition. THETAMBAROORAANDHILLEDGOLDFIELDS1850-1855 FightingGroundCreekquartzroastingpitscomplex is tedabout 10 km north of HillEndtownship,attheohernextremity of theauriferousfieldsexploredfromthe ':-0 to thepresentday(Fig.I).Thecomplexcomprisesa If of kilns,similar in styletolimekilnssetintothevalley.abatterybuilding,adamandtheremains of worker-ing.Assorted,smallerfeaturesarescatteredthroughout_illIToundingbush.Thearea is nowmanagedaspart of Hill Hi toricSitebytheNewSouthWalesNationalParksanddlifeServiceand is onthe NSW StateHeritageRegister. J paperdescribesthequartzroastingpitsandtheiroricaldevelopment,basedonaconservationandrpretationplanprepared in 1998.TheFightingGroundCreekoperationdemonstratesthee of theearlyimportation of technologyfromoverseasfieldstosupporttheAustralianrush. It reflectsavailableology,themethod of itsapplicationandmostnantly,whatwasandwasnotknownaboutAustralian 1 ions. The history of thisparticularsiteandits Fig. I: Location of theFightingGroundCreekquartzroastingpits. 29  thefOrtllation of joint stock(shareholder)companiesthatfinancedtheoperationsbutdidlittle of theminingthemselves.'Forthispurpose,skilledhardrockminerswereengagedtoworktheclaims.Theypossessedtheknowledgebutneitherthecapitalnorthewillnecessarytoestablishtheirownoperations.Earlyclaimswereusuallyworkedon-siteusingimportedcrushingequipment,withfurtherseparation of thegoldoccurringelsewhere. QUARTZROASTING Theknownandinferredhistory of quartzroastingispresentedbyMooreandRitchie 3 intheirdiscussion of alargesuite of survivingquartzroastingpitsfromtheHaurakiGoldfield in NewZealand.Opinionsonthebenefits of roastingarevariedandthemeans of doingsorangedfromthecruderoasting of heaps of oreandwood,tosophisticatedbrickfurnacesemployinggasesastheheatingagent.Thereweretwomainreasonswhyorewasroasted.Thefirstwas to makethequartzmorefriablesothatitwouldcrushmoreeasilywhenpassedthroughthestamperbattery,lesseningwearonthemachinery.Theotheraim of roastingwastooxidisethesulphidescontainedwithinpyriticquartz.Lockstressedhowever,that 'improper' roastingatlowtemperatures in primitivekilnscouldbemoreinjuriousthanhelpfulasthechemicalprocessesatthesetemperaturesrenderedthegoldmoredifficulttoseparatefromtheresultingironoxide.'Theeffect of roastingontheorecouldatfustonlybeevaluatedthroughcomparison of processed samples againstassayresults.A clear understanding of thechemistry of theroastingprocessandwhyitdidordidnotalwaysworkwasnotreacheduntilthelaternineteenthcentury.Theuse of theterm'calcining'todescribetheroastingprocessrevealsthattheactualchemistry of theoreroastingprocesswasverypoorlyunderstood,as itis quitedifferentfromcalcininglimestone. s TheorethatwasprocessedattheFightingGroundCreekroastingpitscamefromthenearbyValentinesMineandDirtHolesareas.Thisorewasundoubtedlypyritic,andthereisastronglikelihoodthatthelowtemperaturesproducedintheopenpitshinderedtheprocess of goldextraction 6 Atthetimeitwasnotwidelyunderstoodthatlowtemperatureroasting of pyriticquartzorecouldbecounterproductiveasitactuallyreducedtheability to retrievegoldparticles.' In order to observetheeffects of roastingfirst-handandtodetermine if theFightingGroundCreekkilnshadeverbeenoperationalfoursamples of quartzweretakenfromtheValentinesMine,2.5kmsouth of theroastingpits. Four pieces of quartzwereroastedforfivehoursinkilnsattheDepaltment of GeologyandGeophysicsattheUniversity of Sydney-two of themat400degreesCelsiusandtwoat800degreesCelsius.AsthetemperaturesachievedbytheopenkilnsatTambaroorawereunknownandlikelytobevariable,theseareonlyapproximations of theoperationalkilntemperature.Onepiece of quartzwasleftunroastedasacontrol.Afterroasting,onesamplefromeachfiringwasquenchedwithwaterwhilestillhotsotheeffects of suchaprocedurecouldbeobservedby comparison withtheunquenchedandunroastedquartz. 8 In allfiredsamples,regardless of temperature,whitening of thequartzwasobserved.Thischangefromacleartoadense,cloudywhiteisprobablyduetotheexpansion of gasbubbleswithinthequartz,andmayhaveaddedtoitsfriabilitybycreatingsmallfractureswithinthestonestructure.Quenchinghadnoeffectonthesamplefiredat400degrees,butwhenwaterwasappliedtoqUaItzfromthe800degreefiringitimmediatelycrumbledintosmallershards.ThissupportsLock'sassertionthatquenchingquartzfiredatanadequatetemperaturewasbeneficial. It alsoindicatesthatsuchaprocesswouldhaveatangibleeffectuponquartz30roastedatFightingGroundCreek if theopenkilnswereabletoproducehighenoughtemperatures.Comparingthesesigns of roastingwiththephysicalcharacteristics of aquartzsampletakenfromthekilnflooratFightingGroundCreek,itisprobablethat it hasbeensubjectedtofuingatareasonablyhightemperature.ThekilnsamplehasamilkycolourthatisfarwhiteranddenserthantheunroastedcontrolsamplefromValentinesMine.Thissupportsusingquartzcolourasanindicator of priortreatmentbyroasting.Therustycolouredcortexonthekilnsamplecannotbeexplained,asnoreddeningwasobservedontheroastedsamples,butitispossiblethatoxidisationisinitiatedduringroasting,onlyshowingphysicalsignsafterweathering. THECOLONIALGOLDMININGCOMPANY 1852-1856 TheColonialGoldMiningCompanywasfloatedinLondon in July1852.Thecompanyvaluewas to be£200000dividedinto£2shares,onethird of whichwasreservedforBritishshareholders!Over160AustralianshareholdersinvestedinthecompanyandwiththeGreatNuggetVeinCompanyastheirsubsidiary,theysecuredaminingleaseatMeroo.By1853theyhadbegunreef-miningoperationsatLouisaCreek,nearHargraves,tothenorth of Hi II End.Anoperation of impressivesizeandperhapsthefirst of itstypeinAustralia, it receivedmentioninthehalf-yearlyreport of theGoldCommissionerfortheWesternDistricts. He reportedtheerection of alargeenginecapable of crushing'fortytons of quartzper diem' andemploying120mentoworkinthemineandthecrushingworks.'·ThefollowingMaytheCommissioneragainreportedupontheLouisaCreekworkingsandnotedthepresence of 'permanentkilnsforcalcining' in associationwiththebattery,whichusedballcrushingratherthanstamperbatteries.Theconfidenceinherent in erectingsuchsubstantialworksbeforetestingthevalue of theclaim is striking.Evenmorenotablewasthedecision in mid-1854tobeginasimilaroperationonFightingGroundCreekwithintheTambarooradiggings,onlyshortlyafterthestart of operationsatLouisaCreek.AsworkcommencedonFightingGroundCreek,the BathurstFreePress repOltedthatagooddeal of orehadbeencrushedatLouisaCreekandthattheresultslooked'encouraging'."However,theLouisaCreekoperationsranintodifficulties in early1855duetoawatershortage,despitetheconstruction of adamthathadbeenbrimminginJune1854."TheGoldCommissioneralsoreportedthatalthoughtheLouisaCreekquartzhadallbeenroasted 'in afewhours,grooveswere WOrtl in therollers,largeenoughtolayafinger in'.13 ConstructionatTambaroora commencedunder thedirection of theCompany'ssuperintendent Mr AlfredJamesSpence.Theconstantandcostlywearing of theballcrushersatLouisaCreekmayhavepromptedtheuse of astamperbatteryatTambaroora.FightingGroundCreekwaschosenforthe'superiorfacilities it offeredfortheconstruction of dams'."Theaimwastopurchaseorefromlocalminerssothoseclaimsintheareacouldbeworkedandprocessedatminimumcost.BymidFebruary1855construction of theroastingpitscomplex of roastingpits,abatteryandadamwascomplete.Therehasbeensomesuggestion in secondaryaccountsthattheroastingpitswerebuiltonlyafterthestamperbatteryprovedinadequate to crushthequartz,butnomention of this is madeintheprimaryaccountsanditconflictswiththepattern of constructionatLouisaCreek.Theonlydetailedcontemporaryaccount of theopeningandoperation of theworkswasmadebythe BathurstFreePress on 17 February  THEQUARTZROASTINGPITSCOMPLEXAFTER1856 Afterthecollapse of theColonialGoldMiningCompanytheoccupancy of theland,whichhadbeenheldthroughalicenseundertheGoldFields Management Act,lapsed. The Companyprobablysold or removedthebulk of itsequipment,anditislikelythatscavengingwouldhaveseentheremoval of anyremaininguseablemachinery or material.MiningactivityaroundHillEndandTambarooracontinuedatarelativelylowleveluntiltheearly1870swhenthelargeandprofitablereefsatHawkinsHill,besideHillEndtownshipbegantobeworked.AtthispointHillEndbecameone of themaingoldfields in ewSouthWales.TheTambarooraminescontinuedtooperatebutwererapidlyovershadowedbythemassiveproductionandinvestmentatHillEnd.Whatdamnedthesuccess of theroastingpitsasacommercialoperation,but probably savedthemasanarchaeologicalsite, is thattheyweresitedwellawayfromanygold.Nosubsequentminingactivitytookplaceonornearthecomplex,althoughevidence of paddocking or surfacingcanbeseenalongtheroadsidewithinIkm.Thenextknownactivityonthelandaftertheclosure of thequartzroastingpitsComplextookplace in 1869.GeorgeDewdney,aleadingmerchantandprovedoreinHillEndduringthelate1860sand1870stookupfour2-acre[0.91ha]blocksintheParish of CummingsasImprovementlots.Thesecouldbetakenupasselectionsthatcouldbeconvertedtofreehold if conditions of improvement,suchasfencing,clearing,erection of adwellingandcultivationweremet.Theseeventuallybecameportions 12 and 13 of theParish of Cummings. in the1930sthelandwastakenintoAlphaStation,alargesheep-raisingpropertytothenorthofTambaroora.ValentinesMine,whichhadbeenoperatedsporadicallysincethe1860s,wasreactivatedduringtheGreatDepressionasweremanyother reef andalluvialminingoperationsatHillEnd. 21 HarryHodgerecordedthatthe'ManagersHouse'wasusedasashearingshedbyAlphaStation. 22 Thisindicatesthatitwasstanding in someformuntilatleastthe1930s.Nootherevidence,eitherphysical or documentary,suggeststhatanythingbeyondgrazingtookplaceatthesiteintheperiod of ownershipbyAlphaStation.inthe1960stheHillEndCitizensAssociationboughttheroastingpitsfromAlphaFarmandranthemasaprivatetouristattractionfortheincreasingnumber of visitorstoHill End's heritageattractions.HillEndHistoricSitewasgazetted in October1967,asone of thefirstsuite of historicsitesproclaimedundertheNationalParksandWildlifeAct1967.Theinitialhistoricsitewasfocussedonthecore of thetownship,butitwasrecognisedthattoberepresentative of thehistory of miningthehistoricsitewouldhavetoencompassareaswhereminingactivitiestookplaceaswellasthetownitself.achievable in theopenkilnsmaynothavebeenhighenough to bebeneficial.Theshareholdersdecidedtocuttheirlossesandthe Company folded.Bythebeginning of 1856reportsconcerningtheCompanyhadvanishedfromthepressandtheGoldCommissioner'sreports.Thelastreportinthe BathurstFreePress indicatedthattheCompanywasleasingtheirLouisaCreekclaimtoindividualminers.Nofurthermention of theirTambarooraoperationswasmade.Thehastyconstruction of thebatterynearunprovenground,theuse of lowtemperatureopenkilnstoroastthequartzandtheresultingclosure of operationsinlessthantwoyearsallpointtoaseries of ill-considereddecisionsregardingtheplanningandestablishment of theoperation.-5and is reproduced in fullbelow.Thelocalitychosenfortheerection of theengine is calledFightingGroundCreek(sonamedonaccount of anumber of pugilisticencountershavingtakenplaceonthespot)aboutfivemilesfromTambarooraandonefromthevein.Thesiteisgoodandwelladaptedforthepurpose.Alargeandcapaciousdamhasbeenrectedandareservoirformed,whichtherecentheavyrainshavefilledwithgoodwater.Anumber of wellbuiltsubstantialhutsforthementoreside in surroundtheworks,givingthemtheappearance of avillage.Themen,thirtyinnumber,employedontheworksare of a superiorcharacter -goodmechanics,andthoroughlymasters of theirtrades.Theengineis of ixteenhorsepower, performingabout fortyrevolutionsaminute,andthequartziscrushedbytampersplacedperpendicularly in awoodenframe.Anut of thefly-wheelshaftdrivesasparewheelto I enitsspeed.Thisshaftisattachedtothedrum or arrel,that is placedhorizontallyinfront of thetampers.Thedrum is studdedwithsappetsthatraisetampersverticallybyitsrotarymotion.Eachstamperandtherearetwelveinnumber,weighingtwo·undredweighteach,risesandfallsfifty-fivetimesperminute.Thequartzisreducedasfineaspowder,andgoldisseparatedfromitbyitsbeingwashedin•m.thesameasalluvialsoil.Atemporarytrial ofthe gineandmachinerywasmadelastweek;itworked"edinglywellandgavegreatsatisfaction.When in Iworkingorder,itwillcrushfromtwelvetotghteentons of quartzintwenty-fourhours... To lebratetheevent of thefirstcrushingthecompanyrderedasubstantialdinnertobeprovidedforallthenattheworks.Themanagement of thedinnerwascrluustedto Mr. Barry of theRailwayHotelandhearednomeanstomakeitworthy of theoccasion.'sromthebeginnjngtheFightingGroundCreekoperation to generatelargereturns,eitherthroughoperatingfees·addingvaluetodwindlingoreproductionfromtheDirt-andValentinesmines.Initialshareholdersupportwasutthiswasdue to thepolicy of payingshareholdersa ~ n d fromthepaidupcapital of theCompanybeforetionhadcommenced,i.e.effectivelyofferingapartialonsharesheld.'6 In 1856,however,theBritishholdersheldameetingattheLondonTavernandreports.theVictorianandNewSouthWalesoperations of theanwerediscussed."Thechailman of theCompany,AlfredChurchill,statedthathethought:therehadbeenveryrecklessexpenditure,andhe u1d notdiscoverthattherewaseveranysource of ofit...InewSouthWalestheexpenditurehadbeentdoublethevalue of thegoldobtained.Thexpenses of homemanagementhadalsoseemedtobexcesive.Thedirectorshadrunthroughacapital of onhundredthousandpoundsandnowmadeacallforvelvethousandmore. IS Therearemanyaspects of theColonialGoldMiningmpany'soperationthatwerequestionablymanagedanduldbeconsideredwhenattempting to understandtheoeration'sdemise.Byhisownadmissiontheoriginalager, A. J. Spence,hadenthusiasmbutlackedexperience, obablymost evidentinhiswillingnesstoestablishnsiveprocessingequipmentbeforetheworth of localzreefshadbeentested. 19 Possiblythecleversalespitch :the previousunsuccessfulownerdupedhim.Hischoice of hinery,althoughinitiallypraised,waslatercondemnedby •e GoldCommissioner. 20 Roastingthequartzmayalsohaveddedtothe Company's problemsasthetemperaturesable r theJames-herspernfor n of so -d at ;:, pitslete. r- thatttery of this.theiled of theruaryouisa•tionlia,Goldthe of •mille 31  Table 1: Identifiedelements in thequartzroastingpitscomplex No.1 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15 16ElementRoastingPitsBatteryHouseSiteHouseSiteQuarryFenceDamPossiblestructurePossiblestructurePossiblestructureRoadQuarrypitsArtefactscattersWorkerhousingWaterraceOretransport1974Designation'B''A',flue'F' '0' 'C''K''E'Note'Manager'sHouse''UnderManager'sHouse'Probablylate1860sPossibly20thcenturyNotrecorded in detailNotrecorded in detailNotlocated in 1997NotlocatedNotlocatedFormnotdetermined In1969NPWSHillEndRangerTedWhittinghamrecommendedthattheServiceacquirethecomplex,statingthat'thepitsarehistoricallyveryimportantandshouldbesafeguardedandpreserved'."Thefirsttwoblocks,Portions 12 and 13, wereboughtin1973,withoutrealisingthattheydidnotcoincidewiththesignificantstructuresonthesite(seeFig.4).Additionallandwasbought,bringingtheentirehistoricalcomplexintoonetitleby1978.In1974JudyBirminghamapproachedNPWStocarryoutarchaeologicalfieldworkforthenewhistoricalarchaeologycourseattheUniversity of Sydney. An ambitiousprogram of researchexcavationswereplannedforthebatterystructureatFightingGroundCreekandtheMetropolitanHotelsiteatHillEnd, as well as surveys of varioussites.Fieldworkwasundertakenby 26 staffandstudents of theUniversity of Sydneyfrom 13 to 24 May1974,undertheoveralldirection of JudyBirmingham,withMaureenByrneandJohnWade as fieldsupervisors.'·Ninesmalltrenchesweredugaroundthebattery,andthecomplexwassurveyed.The1974survey FightingGround Creek identifiedanumber of structureswithintheimmediatevicinity of theroastingpits,themajorityprobablycontemporarywithitsbriefoperation.ThesearelistedinTable1andtheirlocationsareshown in Fig. 2. The1974excavationswerenotcarriedoutonascalethatcontributedmaterially to ourknowledge of thesite'shistoryoroperation,beyondwhatcouldalreadybeconfidentlyreadfromthehistoricalrecord.TheonlysubstantivepublishedpaperthatdiscussedthesitewasbyMadden."However,theexcavation,althoughlimited in extent,representsagrowinginterest in theinvestigation of physicalevidence of Australia'spast,atadatethatalsosawthefirstconsideration of heritageconservation as anationalissue."NPWSHistorianMichaelPearsonalsocarriedoutsubsequentresearch as part of conservationworksonthecomplex.Thisresultedinthestabilisation of thebatteryhouseandroastingpitsandthecontinuation of theanalysis of thestructuresbegunbyBirmingham'steam. 2) AlthoughtheroastingpitscomplexhadbeenincludedwithinHillEnd 32 r - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' ? ' ~ '--.'":::;-. __ I _- ~ : : J J ' ~ .--\ I :: ,(;;' ' ~ t \ ) ~ ~ " \ ' \ .- 'l -:" 2\\ I _: r j" , ~ \\ \ 4•,::::,9 4 .c-""" I C --:.." 1 ,,=,r( I 8/ ''"' 5 "..... '"" ":;\1",:- I; ~ ~ • 6. "-. '\ ;-;. " ' ( ~ L ~ \ ~ ~ "" ';. '.f,,,.,n,., " \•7 :") '" \( 10" \ \ )' \ \ / \ \' / =i \\ // Mag. N \\. 'i / {;te entra nce \, \ rev : ~ ~ ~ ~ g pits \\ "', \3'Manager'shouse' '\ ........,........ ....). 4'Under Manager's house', "'" ,.5Quarry\ ,., ;/ 6 Fence alignment '\ ,., ...... ,// 7 Dam· nowsilted up, ,/ 8-10 Possible structures\ 3 ,/' -'- Historic Site boundary '\ fi'>" ;/ ...... edge of dam ,'V ;/' \ .,/ V" Fig. 2: Identifiedsiteelements.  mitywiththeirouttheouse of thetheEnd Recollstrucledresource flow <:::r1:w,qua.rl:C roastingpilS. : t: I I' I: I, I, ;1: II II ~ OreFlow ~ Other Materials -- ---. _., -- .---. --. -"\ 1. TailiDCs wuhed into «ft.k 2. Ort isroastedinkilns Ore transportedto BatteI")' Fud·Iimbc . t/ Wattr forBattery Thefollowingisaproposedreconstruction of oreflowatthecomplexwithaninterpretation of theuse of thevariousstructuresandtheircomponents,baseduponthehistoryoutlinedaboveandphysicalexamination of theremainingstructuresthemselves(Fig.3).Theappraisal of thebatterybuilding is baseduponaninterpretation of thesitedevelopedbyNPWSHistorianMichaelPearson. 29 Gold-bearingquartzwasbroughttotheroastingpitsfromtheCompany'sclaimatDirtHoles or othermines in thesurroundingarea.Thefirststageinvolvedroastingtheoreinpits or kilnsbuiltintoaslopeonthesouth-westernside of thebattery.ThedoublekilnatTambaroora is identical in internalstructuretothe'invertedbell'limeburningkiln(Fig.4)identifiedbyPearson. 30 Bellkilns of thesamesimpleindesignwereusedinAustraliabetweenthe1790sand1860s,andgoodexamplesstillsurviveatPortArthurandMoretonBay.Adoublekiln of thetypeemployedbytheColonialGoldCompany is evident RECONSTRUCTIONOFOREFLOW AT THEROASTINGPITCOMPLEX H : : ~ ' f i - I C Siteitsdistancefromthetownshipsawitmissingouttouristmarket.AconservationmanagementplanandretationplanpreparedbyNPWSstaffpulledtogetherioushistoricalandarchaeologicalresearch.'·Thecompletedthestabilisation of thecomplex,and-edtheneedtomakevisitstothesitemoreinformativeitculturalsignificanceandroleintheearlyhistory of mining in Australia.Anumber of furtherarchaeologicalrurewereidentified(TableI)andtheconstructionandruralevolution of thesitewasdocumented in detail.Whenconsideredasawhole,thecomplexremainsarkablyintactforagoldprocessingoperation of suchearly._ Itis perhapstheearliestAustraliangoldrushsitewith..majority of itsconstituentpartsintact or atleast- ~ o g n i s a b l e . Theundevelopedsettingaddsfurthertoitsgrityandarchaeologicalsignificance.Thelack of quentmininghasassisted in preservingsitefeaturesthatuldprobablyhavebeendestroyedinmostcontexts or nfusedbysuccessivephases of mining.33
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