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The Philosophic Practitioner and the Curriculum Space

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This paper reviews contemporary debates about tourism and hospitality education to conceptualise a curriculum space framework that can be used to facilitate understanding and decisionmaking. The paper is conceptual and makes two key contributions: it
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  Benckendorff, P. & Moscardo, G. (2013). Generational Cohorts and Ecotourism. In Ballantyne, R. & Packer, J. (Eds). International Handbook of Ecotourism. Edward Elgar. 1   The Philosophic Practitioner and the Curriculum Space   Dianne Dredge Southern Cross University Pierre Benckendorff The University of Queensland Michele Day Southern Cross University Michael J. Gross University of South Australia Maree Walo Southern Cross University Paul Weeks The Hotel School Sydney/Southern Cross University Paul Whitelaw Victoria University This is an author copy of the following publication: Dredge, D., Benckendorff, P., Day, M., Gross, M. J., Walo, M., Weeks, P., & Whitelaw, P. (2012). The philosophic practitioner and the curriculum space.  Annals of Tourism Research, 39(4), 2154Ð2176.  Dredge, D., Benckendorff, P., Day, M., Gross, M. J., Walo, M., Weeks, P., & Whitelaw, P. (2012). The philosophic practitioner and the curriculum space.  Annals of Tourism Research , 39(4), 2154Ð2176. 2 The Philosophic Practitioner and the Curriculum Space   Dianne Dredge Southern Cross University Pierre Benckendorff The University of Queensland Michele Day Southern Cross University Michael J. Gross University of South Australia Maree Walo Southern Cross University Paul Weeks  The Hotel School Sydney Paul Whitelaw  Victoria University The aim of this paper is to dissect contemporary debates about tourism, hospitality and event education to conceptualise a curriculum space framework that can be used to facilitate discussion, understanding and decision-making. The paper is conceptual and makes two key contributions. First, it draws together diverse discourses about the balance between higher order knowledge in liberal education and skills-based vocational education required by industry. Second, it builds upon the Philosophic Practitioner Education to conceptualise a curriculum space that is socially constructed, dynamic and flexible. The proposed framework is significant because it incorporates the idea of phronesis and the need for students to develop practical wisdom but acknowledges that these opportunities are bounded by a force field of influences on higher education. The framework can assist curriculum planners and decision-makers conceptualise and make strategic decisions about where they would like to be situated within the curriculum space. Keywords:  higher education, curriculum space, knowledge, skills, reflective practitioner, phronesis, graduate capabilities 1.0 Introduction "#$ %&'&()$ %$*+$$( ',%$-&' &(. /0)&*,0(&' $.1)&*,0( +,*#,( *01-,23 &(. #024,*&',*5 6"789 )1--,)1'& #&2 %$)03$ &( ,()-$&2,(:'5 (0*$+0-*#5 *04,) 0; .,2)122,0( 2,()$ "-,%$ 6<==<&9> .-&+,(: ;-03 ?)#0(@2 -$;'$)*,/$ 4-&)*,*,0($- 6ABC<> ABCD> ABBE9> &-:1$. ;0- & )1--,)1'13 *#&* (1-*1-$2 *#$ F4#,'0204#,) 4-&)*,*,0($-@G "#$ 4#,'0204#,) 4-&)*,*,0($- $.1)&*,0( 6HHI9 -$J1,-$2 & )1--,)1'13 *#&* ,2 )03402$. 0; /0)&*,0(&'> 4-0;$22,0(&'> 20),&' 2),$()$ &(. #13&(,*,$2 K(0+'$.:$ &(. 2K,''2 *#&* 4-030*$ & %&'&()$ %$*+$$( 2&*,2;5,(: *#$ .$3&(.2 0; %12,($22 &(. *#02$ -$J1,-$. *0 04$-&*$ +,*#,( *#$ +,.$- *01-,23 +0-'.G ?$/$-&' &1*#0-2 #&/$ %$$( )&'',(: ;0- *#,2 %&'&()$ ,( $.1)&*,0( ;0- 203$ *,3$ 6$G:G> 2$$ L&13> <==MN O(1, &(. 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K(0+'$.:$ ,( &'' ;01- .03&,(2G R0-$0/$-> #$ 0%2$-/$2 *#&* &'*#01:# *#$ ;01- .03&,(2 &-$ -$4-$2$(*$. 2$4&-&*$'5 ,( *#$ .,&:-&3> ,( 4-&)*,)$ *#$5 +01'. %$ ,(*$:-&*$. ,( *#$ )1--,)1'13 30.$'G Figure 1. Philosophic Practitioner Source: Tribe (2002) "#$ HHI )&4*1-$2 *#$ &3%,*,0( 0; "78 $.1)&*,0( *0 3$$* *#$ .$3&(.2 0; ,(.12*-5 &(. 4-030*$ $34'05&%,',*5 0; :-&.1&*$2G O* &'20 #&-($22$2 *#$ ,.$& 0; *#$ )-,*,)&''5 $(:&:$. &(. 3,(.;1' -0'$ 0; "78 :-&.1&*$2 ,( 20),$*5G W2 21)#> ,* #&2 %$)03$ &( ,(;'1$(*,&' ;-&3$+0-K ;0- .$4,)*,(: *#$ )#&''$(:$2 ;&)$. %5 )1--,)1'13 4'&(($-2 &(. #&2 -$)$,/$. ,()-$&2,(: )-,*,)&' &**$(*,0( &(. 21440-* 2,()$ ,*2 41%',)&*,0( 6`,(:> i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e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j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`$;'$)*,0( W)*,0( P,%$-&' a0)&*,0(&' P,%$-&' `$;'$)*,0( a0)&*,0(&' `$;'$)*,0( P,%$-&' W)*,0( a0)&*,0(&' W)*,0( H#,'0204#,) H-&)*,*,0($-  Dredge, D., Benckendorff, P., Day, M., Gross, M. J., Walo, M., Weeks, P., & Whitelaw, P. (2012). The philosophic practitioner and the curriculum space.  Annals of Tourism Research , 39(4), 2154Ð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i-$5;12 7 i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k--5> <==D9G O( 0*#$- +0-.2> +#$-$ +$'' 3&(&:$. +,*#,( &( ,(*$:-&*$. &(. 212*&,(&%'$ &44-0&)#> "78 )&( :,/$ 3$&(,(: *0 4'&)$2 &(. 4$04'$> &.. /&'1$ *0 )1'*1-&' &(. $(/,-0(3$(*&' -$201-)$2> &(. 4-030*$ 4$&)$ &(. 1(.$-2*&(.,(:G "#$5 )&( ,()-$&2$ )1'*1-&' &+&-$($22 &(. 20),&' &(. )1'*1-&' *0'$-&()$N &..-$22 40/$-*5> $340+$- )0331(,*,$2 &(. )0(*-,%1*$ *0 ,34-0/,(: $)0(03,) &(. 20),&' +$''U%$,(: 6$G:G> 8,::,(2Ui$2%0,''$2> <==QN <==CN ?#&-4'$5> <==BN k(,*$. ^&*,0(2 X0-'. "01-,23 e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k(,*$. ^&*,0(2 X0-'. "01-,23 e-:&(,[&*,0(> <=A=N X0-'. "-&/$' &(. "01-,23 V01(),' 6X""V9> <=A=9G g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d12* & 20),$*5 ;0- %12,($22 6?#$'.0( $* &'G> <==CN "-,%$> <==A9G 3.0 Issues in Implementing the Philosophic Practitioner Education "78 )1--,)1'& &-$ 20),&''5 )0(2*-1)*$. ;-03 *#$ ,(*$-&)*,0(2> *-&.$U0;;2 &(. )#0,)$2 3&.$ %5 & -&(:$ 0; 2*&K$#0'.$-2 ,()'1.,(: &)&.$3,) $.1)&*0-2> 1(,/$-2,*5 3&(&:$-2> 2*1.$(*2 &(. ,(.12*-5 $34'05$-2 6?,:&'& 7 L&13> <==D9G "-,%$@2 6<==<&9 )0()$4*1&',2&*,0( 0; & HHI *#&* ,(*$:-&*$2 4#,'0204#,) &(. /0)&*,0(&' $(.2 *0 .$/$'04 +0-'.U3&K,(:> $*#,)&' 4-0;$22,0(&'2 #&2 -$)$,/$. )0(2,.$-&%'$ %&)K,(: ;-03 *#$ &)&.$3,) )0331(,*5 6`,(:> i,)K,(:$- &(. X0%$-> <==CN L$'#&22$( &(. V&*0(> <=AA9G 80+$/$-> ,( &( ,()-$&2,(:'5 ;,(,*$ &(. )-0+.$. )1--,)1'13 24&)$ *#$ $34#&2,2 0( &44',$.> 2K,''2U%&2$. $.1)&*,0( *#&* .$',/$-2 d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