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The Potential for the Archaeological Study of Clay Tobacco Pipes from Australian Sites

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This paper proposes that clay pipes are an 'ideal 'artefact because of a range of characteristics including cheapness, ease of discard, being marked and dated, and stylistic differences that may reflect socio-economic differentiation. It
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  AUSTRALASIANISTORICALRCHAEOLOGY.7. I999 ThePotentialorthe ArchaeologicaltudyofClayTobaccoPipesfromAustralianSites DENISGOJAKand AINSTUARTThis paperproposesthatclay pipesarean'ideal'artefactbecauseofa rangeofcharacteristicsincludingcheapness,aseof discard,being markedanddated,andstylisticdffiiencestiat mayreflectsocio-economicdffirentiation.It reviewshehis.toricaldevelopmentf clay pipesii-Australiaandhieaity localmanufactureofpipes.It discusseshe Australiantobaccohobitsand exa^irnsissuesf trade,marketigandconsumptrcnand howthataffectedpeople'sacquisitionanddisposalofpipes.Thissectionincludesdiscussionon the'SquattersBudgeree'pipewhichwasmadeinGreat BriiainfortheAustralianmarket.It examinestheusefulnessf claypiperemainsin datingAustralianarchaeologicalsites.'Ifarchaeologistsadodescriben dealartefactwithwhichto understandhepastt wouldneedo havehefollowinscharacteristics:a)be cheapand readilyavailable,omethingommonlyused ndaily ife;b)be easilybreakableoencourageiscard;c) whenbrokene ikelyto enterhearchaeologicalecordwithlittle ikelihoodof scavengingrrecycling;d) be ableo survivearshepositionalnvironments;e) havemanufacturer'samesorother marksforeasvdating;f)exhibitpatternedariabilitynformhroughime;g)exhibitstylisticdifferenceseflectingclass,status,ethnicityndpoliticalaffi iation;h)be depictedfrequentlyincontemporary pictorialmaterial,o enablenferencesbouthesocialontextfits use obe made.Is theresuchan artefact?heclayobaccoipecertainlyfulfilsall oftheaboveriteriaet,surprisingly,ewpublishedanalysesfclaypipesareavailableromAustraliaandarchaeologistshavenottakenadvantageofthesecharacteristicsoexpandur knowledgefthepast.hispaperprovidesnoverviewftheclay obaccoipenthecontextfAustralianhistoricalarchaeology.t is notintendedobe adefinitivetudybut ogivesomebasicontextualnformationandoutlinedirectionsn whichfurtherresearchouldbeundertaken.hepaucityofpublishedlaypipeanalysis,revencataloguingoprovideabasis orcomparativeesearch,reflectsmoregeneralackofanalyticalartefacttudiesromAustralianites.Oneofthe reasonsherehasbeenreluctanceamongarchaeologistsopublishartefacttudiesasbeen heabsencefuseful contextualrameworkswhich placeheirassemblagesn abroadersocial andeconomicontexthatrelateso Australianhistoricalarchaeology.he plethoraofstudiesf NorthAmericanrtefactategorieseldomngagesissueshataredirectly elevantoAustralianrchaeology.Archaeologicaltudiesof claypipesin Australiahavegenerallyfocusedondescriptivetypologyandtheidentificationfpipemanufacturers.he irstargessemblagepublishedas fromthe convictbarracksite at PortArthur,Tasmania.rcomprehensiveataloguef the excavatedlaypipeswasproduced,ut the deathof theexcavator,aureenByrne,meanthat a full reportof the excavationasneverpublished.zincehenhere aveeennumberf majoritesexcavatedhich haveproducedubstantialumbersf claypipesncludinghe Hyde ParkBarracksnd RoyalMint,theFirstGovernmentHousesite,LilyvaleandCumberland/Gloucestertreet,all inSydney,and theLittleLonsdaleStreet iten MelbourneFig.l).Theseand othersmallerollections roducedy cultural esourceanagement38excavationshouldbeableoprovideabasis orundertakingfurthernalysisf claypipes.Althoughherearean ncreasingumberfarchaeologicalclaypipestudies loballyhere emainsa strongelementofantiquariannterestnclaypipeesearch.hemainperiodicalsdealingwithclaypipes,ublishingmaterialwithaworld-widecoverage,re theSocietyorClay PipeResearchNevtsletter(SCPRNeu,sletter)andClay TobaccopipeStudies(nowdefunct).Withthe BritishArchaeologicaleportsccasionalseriesTheArchaeologyofTheClayTobaccoprpe,thesehreeseries ontainmportanttudiesn assemblages,anufacturersandmarkets.nfortunately,ewof theseredirectlyelevantto Australiaas heymainlyconcentraten Englishclaypipeindustries rioro thenineteenthentury,lthoughnformationabouthemajorexporterso hecolonialmarketss ncreasing.Thesurvivingevidence rovidesan opportunityo studyboththe specificsof claypipeproductionand use,andtounderstandhe ormationf assemblages.he ragilityof claypipesandthe resiliencef theirfragmentsncediscardedmakeshemdeal orspecialistnalysiso revealsite historyandormationrocesses. THEMANUFACTUREOF CLAYPIPES Fromhe startof tobaccoonsumptionn Europenthe latesixteenthenturyhe mostcommonormof usehasbeenbysmokingwithapipe,heearliest ecordedeingc.1580.3Tobaccoouldalsobe akenby chewing,ncigar ormor assnuff. Duringtheseventeenthentury ocalmanufacturingcentreshroughouturoperoducedistinctiveegionalormsofpipeshowinga wide rangeof decorativetyleswhichcontinuallyvolved.an 1788,whenhecolonyf NewSouthWaleswas founded,akingtobaccohadbecomeacceptablebehaviouror allclassesnd wassecondnly toalcoholasasocial arcotic.Claypipesused rom 1788onwardsonformedoa basicshape a hemisphericalr egg-shapedowlon opofa taperingstemFig.2). Themouthpieceouldeitheremouldedr eftunformed.hebasefthebowlcouldither e oundedr havea spur,which wasa non-functionalestigeofa broaderootthat had srcinallyallowed hepipeo be restedpright.Thestemwasgenerallytraight ndbetween5 and 150mm ong,althoughongerand curvedstemswerealsoproduced.laypipesareproducedromfineclayswhichgenerallyire to acreamorwhitecolour,althoughed, brownand blackpipeswereproducedswell.Ballclayf a varietyf compositionswasused s he awmaterial, ndneed othavebeen aolin,asissometimestated.5he emperatureffiringdidnot vitrirytheclayso it remainedearthenware,ithaporousbody.Becauseheporosityfthestem ouldeelkin romhe ipsofthesmoker,hemouthpiecesfpipeswereoftenglazed,oatedin sealing axor simplyoakedn beer.6 lllf li !|Iilfiill ltlfl .t " lil !{ f ,t,itfli6f ilil rfi r ffi r flll1[fit , IM r l8tiMI  s.A &ing *gical;rt of ;;-^t^ .t!dlJ rrde.eternowionalthreeurers3\'ant Y'Y- .aiion lino study:id toi clayardedlstory . Erdc PerkBerrrcks2. Royal Mlnt3. First GovernmentHous€ 4. Lllyvele5.Cumberhnd/GloucesterSt 6. CrdmrnsCottrge7. Sellors'Home'a'.!apof Sydney CDBand relevant archaeologicalsiles.(Dratvnby-.-.,.+e ) . :e technologyofpipemakingremainedsubstantially--:-:.rgedfrom he seventeenthentury nwards.'Theipe*..::.adeyrolling a sausage fclayto theright engthand':-:.-:.3ss.ndnserting wire ntohestem.hiswasputntoa----::Ihree-partron mouldwhich createdheinal shapef:-::.:e.imparting ny decorationr legend ntohe stemor:,.^.\fter it was removedrom themould thepipe was. .;:jup and anyflashremoved.Stampsor additional::::-::1.1nr advertisingereappliedt his stage.hepipes,:-; :.:enarrangedn a kiln andired.Oncecooled,hepipes"-:]epackedn straworwoodshavingsn boxesr crates'---::.slort.--3processwas carriedout byhand anda skilled::a-::i.ercouldproduceipesata rateofabout500perday.--, ::uld be considerablyncreased ybreakingdown ther- : :3: intoseparateasks,r using team-drivenachinesor--.-i:3nsof theprocess. actoriesaried roma single'::--:.er to theargeScottishxport irmswhichemployed: :-::.undredeople.ipe-makingas arecognisedrafti' : :-:3distinctrom otherceramicrades,lthough ome:.r:-.:l:'msdidmakeclaypipes..:"-Jpriceagreementist revealshathemajorScottish1:{::3:-:eachadover300distinctarietiesfpipesn their-ij;-i,is.and heirm ofWilliamWhitehadproduced06*.:,,-rarieties.8 hese ncludedmanypersonality reffigyr:E:.rrihtheheadof aparticular ndividual,uchas-:;-:::e. andhe commemorationf aparticulareventor:::;.. ssue..g.HomeRule'.Otheripeswere amedfter11,:.:r:rshorvnnhebowl, suchasbasketwork,naturalr'-;-:---sscene,hip,geometric r linearpatternorthe*:'.:-r: :esignof a noveltypipe.Pipeswerealsocategorised-::::-:ize.temshape, owltypeandoverallorm. Somef:-:-:,:rarietieswererish,Cutty,TD,churchwardennd-i-.r\;rreroussub-varietiesasedon sizeand added:,j,.-::.:nrrerecreated,.g.'largeDublinCutty'and'small'{'--,^::i\nPrince'Fig.).'.'. : lecorationasmpartedy hemould,meaninghata-: ,-:-.Jhad obe createdor each arietyFig.4). Some: :tr--:.\3rsequippedheirmouldsith changeablensertsor*..il:',rCual ames radvertisementsouldbemouldednto-: :.-:'rnrequest.Mouldeddecorationaseithermpressed- -:;i:',rhile stampedecoration,adefter heunfiredpipewas released rom the mould,was impressed.Stampeddecorationouldproduceiner detailbutwasoftennot evenlyimpressednto the clay. A third decorativeechniquewasrouletting,whichproduceddentatedattemsaroundhe bowlrimor stem.This wasproducedy a toothedwheelor specialknife, again after thepipewas released rom themould.Occasionally,aintwould be used topickoutparticularfeatures fa design.Printing ouldbe addedwith inkedstamps itherbefore rafteriringfor additionalariationor to meetspecificmarketdemands.Brasseyhaspublisheddetails oftransfer-printeddecoration n over 50 claypipesrom theVictoriaHotel inAucklandNew Zealand.n hesepipeswere manufacturedyJ.G.Reynolds fLondonand seem o dateo around1862.Examplesof thisform of decoration rerare survivalsnarchaeologicalontexts.Manufacturers' amesonpipes weregenerallyplacedalong the stem, eitherin fulloras initials(Fig.5).Thepipe-makerhomasWhite, or example,s marked npipess'THO WHITE', 'T.W.','TW& Co','WHITE& CO.','WHITE'S'and'THO. WHITE & Co'amongothervariations.lo heplaceof manufactureasmarkedontheopposite ideof the stem. n commonwith mostmanufacturedgoodshedesignationfplaceofmanufactureasaffectedythe U.S. McKinleyTari"ff ct of 1891,which requiredhatallgoodsmported nto heUnitedStatesad o bemarkedwiththeir country of srcin.rMost ScottishandEnglishpipe-makersadused heirstreetddress r ownofsrcinbutthiswaschangedo either'England' r'Scotland'fter1891.Less commonnthenineteenth enturywas thepractisefmarking he maker'snitials onto the spur(Fig.5d).Bythemid-nineteenthenturyhespur haddecreasedn sizeo a smallremnant r wasentirelyabsent nmanypipe orms.Thepotentialexiststoidenti! a maker'sindividualmoulds.At the BarrackLanesite n Parramatta,ew SouthWales, about 50pipefragmentswere foundwhichweremarkedJ.ELLIOTTMAKER/ MARKETSTWHARF'.'2Josephlliottwasa Sydneyipe-makerho operatedetweenateast 83l and 1837.''Sixndividualmouldswereused nthe assemblage.enericlaypipemoulds ppearohavebeencutinto with agraver,producingine angularettering,whichvaried onsiderablyn styleandspacing monghemoulds.llfragmentseredepositedlose ogether,uggestinghatpipesmade rom hedifferentmouldswere n circulationogether.tshould epossibleo determineowmanymouldswere n useat any oneime, whichwouldprovideagoodmeasuref thehealth fthe coloniallaypiperade, swell asa detailedtudyof onepipe-maker'sutputover ime.t couldalsobeusedorefine therwisemprecise atingf aparticularmanufacturer'Apart from clay, otherpipebowlsweremadefrommeerschaum, softstonesuitableor intricatecarving,orcarved romwood speciesuchas briar.Thesead stemsndmouthpiecesade romamber,awedboneand,ater nthenineteenth entury,vulcaniteandotherplastics.AseparateAmericantub-stemmedipeorm,with alarge laybowlanddetachableeedstem,s almostunknownfromAustraliansites.laTheres alsoconsiderablevidencefChineseopiumsmokingequipmenteingusedon theAustralianandNewZealandoldfields,andlatern the urbanChinatowns'heparaphernaliaf opiumsmokingsquitedistinctive,utisunlikely.-tobe foundoutsideheminingandChinatowncontext.'Claypipesbreakeasilyand thosewithlongerstemsareespeciallyragile.Estimates fhowlongapipe survivesnnormal usagebasedon contemporaryaccountsangefromseveral ayso twoweeks.r6eavierandhickerpipeswereproducedwhich werepopularwith labourers,utevenheseended pn fragments.f a stembrokenearhemouthpiecehepipecouldbe used,erhaps ith the stembeingeshapedirste late;580.',oras:uringlorms*hichSouthpnble:lasa: basic-lerlng".reft. have:r footr:. Ther long,:.Clay:etoa.plpessrions:iin,asritrifobody.:ipsf;oated 39  Fig.2: Claypipeterminologt,showingthe mainfeaturesreferredto inthetext. (Fig.6f). However,a crackedbowl,ora stembrokenoo closetothe bowl,wasenough easonorapipeobe discarded.hereuseofpipeswithbrokenstems,itherby thesrcinalsmokerorsomeoneeekingosavemoney,maybe expectedo reflecteitherovertyrdifficultyn accessingeliableuppliesfnewpipes.No workhasbeendoneon heoccurrencefpipereuseto test hisproposition.Althoughtherearevarioususes recordedorclaypipefragments,uchasgamingcountersndwhistles,tis unlikelythat scavengingf fragmentswouldhaveemovedmorehanaverysmallproportionfthepiecesnteringhearchaeologicalrecord."Evidenceof useis commonlyfoundonpipefragments.Smokingtobaccoeavesablackor darkbrownresiduewithinthebowl afterasinglesmoke.FowlerecordsthatSydneypipesmokersreasuredlack,stainedipesandwouldwrapthemin leatheror evenbuythemalreadyblackened.'"steethgripthestemnearhemouthpieceheymaychip off smallpressurelakesofglazeor ceramicon upperand lowersurfaces.Namesweresometimesscratchedontopipes,perhapso indicateownershipbutpossiblyafterbreakagenthe samewaythatostracawereusedascounters.reThe ubiquityof smokingamongbothEuropeansndAbsrcinal eopleollowingEuropeanontactsconfirmedydentalevidenceromskeletons, hichsometimeshowclearevidencef distinctiveoothwearattributedo clenching ipestemsbetweenheteeth.2o TOBACCOHABITSANDCLAYPIPEF'ASIIIONS In Englandakingobaccowas widespreadhroughallsocialclasses, ut withconsiderableariation.Theupperclassespreferrednuffandigars.ipeswerestillpopular,ut heclaypipewasscornedn favourof a carvedmeerschaumrbriar.Cigaretteserentroduceduringhe NapoleonicWars,andwerealwaysaroundthereafter.InAustraliatheydid notpredominateverpipesuntilhe atenineteenthentury,whileclaypipesapidlydwindlednpopularity,withalmostnouse40afterWorldWarOne.Chewingtobaccois recordedinAustraliabut itnevereachedhesamepopularityas nNorthAmerica.2lew,f any,claypiperagmentsre oundnsecuretwentieth-centuryrchaeologicalontexts.22Tobaccowasone ofthe firstcolonialndustries.23hemoderatelimate,heeasefgrowingand h6 readymarketallencouragedobaccogrowingas aprofitablesecondcropforfarmersinthe earlyyearsof thesettlement.twas neverconsideredo beasgoodas hemportedstuff, whichwasalsousuallywiceheprice.Claypipesnitiallyhadobe mportedto smoket,but n l8lI D.D.Mannwasableo observehatatleastonepipe-makerwasoperatingocallyand.thegreatpropensityo smokingwhich prevailshroughouthe colony,causesn astonishingonsumplionf thisarticle,ndhaswellrepaidhesrcinalspeculator.""obaccowas alsousedas atreatmentor scabn sheepandmanypastoralpropertiesrewtobaccoorthispurpose.IndiscussinghebroadercontextoftobaccouseinAustralian hisbookUnderFire Walkernoteshe associationbetweenlaypipesmokingand owsocio-economictatus.26EnglishsocialdistinctionsntobaccosewereransferredoAustraliawhereclay pipeswereassociatedmostwithlabourers,onvictsndespeciallyhe rish.Therishwere hestereotypicalabourersn nineteenth-centuryngland,beingemployedsnawiesn heconstructionf canalsnd ailways.Theyalsoformed,as immigrants,largeproportionof thepopulationfScottishitiessuchas GlasgowandEdinburgh,whichbecameentresortheexportrade nclaypipes.TheIrishwereassociatedwithaparticularformofpipe-short-stemmed,hickandwitha roulettedim,robustnoughobe smokedwhiledoingphysicalwork.The.EmigrantMechanic'ecordsuchpipesncommonuse nNewSouthWales.27The wholecompanywasdividedntominorgroupsftwos,threes,and fours,andthedudeenapipewithstem educedo three,wo,oneorhalfan nch)wasneverybody'smouth.think herewasnot anndividualinhe oom,butone emale.hodid notsmokemoreorless,uringhe briefime wesathere.Dudeenwasan Irishwordusedo refertoclaypipesgenerally,ut wasalreadyeingusednthe colonieso referparticularlyo thehickpipesassociatedith lrishnavviesnEnglandFig.7)."The angefpipesound n Irelandsargeand he navvy pipesare notcharacteristicfthe assemblage,suggejtinghatheywereadoptedmainlyamong heemigrantIrish."EchoingMannlater nthecenturys Fowler,whoalsonotedwithamusementhatpipesmokingwas ubiquitousamongAustralians.Everybodyhasone, fromthelittlepinaforedchool-boy...toheold veteranwho cameout withthesecond atchofconvicts'.30Whileaccountsuchas hismake tclearhat nearlyalllowerclass menand womensmoked, contemporaryillustrations enerallyo notshowwomensmokingwithclaypipesunless t isthe artist'sntentiono clearlyndicatehatthesewomenwererom he owestclassandprobablyevoidof civilisationr morals.Classdistinctionsntakingobacco,and whetherwomenwerepermittedo smoke(atleastnpublic)canbe tracedincontemporaryllustrations.Theassociationf theclaypipewithlowerclassor status saffirmedthroughoutthenineteenthcentury.Portrayalsoftobaccomokingmonghemiddleclasshow tto havebeenalmostscommonplaces heowerorders,t eastmonghemen.Thereppearso havebeen oobjectiono obacco erse,purelyhe mannern whicht wasngested.The oleoftobaccosacheap,ocially anctionedarcoticdeservesomment.Tobaccowasa common ationtemforconvicts nd abourersn lieuof wages.'lAs a habit-forming  din,IorthrcureThe.etallpforrever; alsoortedhat atgreatilony,;welllasagewse iniaionfus.26ed towithre thebeingways.rftheirgh,i. The'ipe-ughoigrantSouthof dl intalorprpeslreferriesn;largeblage,rigranto alsoluitouslittlenwithrly allporaryh clayrc thatdevoid,bacco,ast ini.Thertus is'alsofc beenngtheFrse,arcoticem fororming uatAfrcfAntO/FOflfttthtfsrCtrrs. :l;ge-fromaThomasDavidsonandCo.catalogueshowingatypicalrangeofdecoratedpipeforms(GallagherandPricel9ST:128).Thevarietiesf:Rnptobotlom) Squatter, Long Meerschaum, Large Douglas, Large Carved Milo,LargeGaribaldi,Ileed,My Pipe, Short Congo, GoldDigger,icrJandGoat Head.:g!l;prcal claypipebowlsfound in nineteenth-cerrturyqal;:-i"l;rsrtesallexamples in thefollowingfgures areFm--:;ii.rruCottage Historic Site, Sydney.(Drawnby--c,:r!-c?zmte) Ao- l" I fl twi-ffi1 (2\g W Ot-i----_---n6 4l  Fig. 6: Claypipemouthpieces.6a and chavebeen sealedwith red wax,6b hasyellow-brownglaze,6f has beenreshapedfollowingbreakage.(Drawnby Georgia Rennie.) substancet alsohad apotentialo serveas a way ofensuringcontinuingdependencyn an economic elationship. n townstherewouldbenoproblemingettingalternativesuppliesoftobaccoandpipes,butin rural areas hesewould have o betransportedand boughtatsubstantialcost. The supplier oftobaccondpipes,uchasa squatter r religiousmission, ouldhold a strongmeasure ofcontrol over their labourers orcharges,as theywould have to rely upon theemployercontinuingosatis! their habits,andashey werepartly paidnrationshadnocashopayfor an alternative upply.Marginalisedbsrcinalpopulationseceiving obacco ntheirrations from apastoralstation,mission orgovernmentagencydeveloped dependencypon he supplier hatwas asmuchphysiologicalas economic.Most descriptionsofAbsrcinaleopleiving n camps nstations r nearEuropeansettlementsote that both menand women smoked."Thishelpedo reinforce hecommonnineteenth-centuryerceptionoftheAbsrcinalasbrutishanduncivilised. 42 Fig. 5:Claypipestems, showingtypical makers'marks andother stem markings.(DrawnbyGeorgia Rennie.) Inthe upperandmiddle classesmokingwas associatedwith leisure andcontemplation,s a contrast o the workingclass,wheresmokingwas associated ith work and raucousentertainment.The smoking rituals of thewealthy wereelaborate. he smokingoomenhancedhe exclusivemalenatureof smokingor leisure,and t was not consideredoliteto smoken mixedcompany. adiesdid not smoke,lthoughfrom the late nineteenth entury smokingcigarettesbecamepopularas awayof showingthatyouwere amodernwoman,withjusta hint offeminism." Ceremonywas attached o theoffering ofcigarsaftei dinner oguests,ndsuitablyengravedpipes,igarsnippers, shtrays ndcigarcasesereamong hemostpersonalfpresents. he most avishof these mokingrequisites eremade fgoldandsilver.Notsurprisingly,hesedo not commonly nterhe archaeologicalecord.While notgender-specific,obacco nd smokingeflectedcontemporaryttitudes o both classandgender,andhadarolein reinforcingexistingdivisionswithin society.Therewas rsclono lillqDcporri - ' a latcov I tltItolLL050ff-m. s+trf O I w b.o I - I d.o I r- lI-f ..O 0F- I e.o gto I o
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