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  Dan Lester Demafeliz October 21, 2014 TRESYSD The Philippines has three transit systems namely the LRT (Line 1&2), MRT and PNR which are all located in Manila having two rapid lines which are the LRT and MRT and PNR which is a commuter rail. First is the LRT (Manila Light Trail Transit) Line 1 which starts from Monumento and ends in Baclaran which is facing the north-south direction and it has an interchange in D. Jose and Recto stations connecting to Line 2 and also has an interchange for the MRT or Line 3 in EDSA and Araneta-Cubao Stations. Line 1 has a stretch of 17.2 kilometers and serves around 430,000 passengers a day. During peak hours, the time interval of the train arrivals/headway has a minimum of 3 minutes but with the proper upgrade and funding of the trains, it could reach a headway as low as 1 minute and a half. The next transit is the Line 2 which is 13.8 kilometers long serving 11 stations and is located in an east-west direction. Line 2 is the least busy transit among the three rapid transit lines and serves around 200,000 passengers a day. It has three stations that serve as interchange between Line 1, MRT and PNR. Recto Station for Line 1, Araneta-Cubao for MRT and Pureza Station for the PNR. The third transit system is the MRT which has 13 stations and is 16.9 kilometers long. The MRT or Line 3 is the busiest rapid transit among the 3 and has an average of 600,000 passengers daily. There are also 3 stations which serve as an interchange to the Line 1, Line 2 and PNR.   The PNR (Philippine National Railways) is a state-owned railway system and is the first railway system that was ever built in the Philippines and was founded since 1892. PNR was once accommodating freight services as well. The railways used to operate over 1,100 kilometers before, running from La Union to Bicol. But due to natural disasters and informal settlers during the 90’s, the PNR’s standards declined causing the suspension of the Manila to Bicol routes. In 2014, they conducted to test run to re-open the Manila-Bicol route but due to typhoon Glenda, the PNR postponed the re-opening to October or November this year.  Rail Signalization Rail Signalization is a system to manage the railway congestion to prevent accidents in the railway system. There are 7 types of rail signalization namely Timetable Operation, Block Signaling, Centralized Traffic Control, Train Detection, Fixed Signals, Safety Systems, Cab Signaling, and Interlocking. The least type of System is the Timetable Operation  in which they base the operation according to a timetable. By using this system, you must not allow any time delays such as engine failures since you must follow and ensure to be on schedule thus making this system inefficient. The second system is the Block Signaling , in this system; they put sections also known as blocks  to divide the railway lines. This system permits only one train in each block at a time to prevent accidents. Next is the Centralized Traffic Control , this system consists of someone that manipulates the railroad connecting and the railway traffic flow. It has a control panel which shows a graphical representation of the railroad to keep track of the flow of the trains. The fourth form is the Train Detection , they use electrical circuits to prove that the points are in the correct position before signaling over them may be cleared. Next is the Fixed Signals  which physical signals are used to indicate the drivers of the train if the line ahead is occupied and to guarantee enough space between trains. Another form is Cab Signaling, in which they communicate the track information of the train and can also warn the driver in hazardous conditions and could also apply the brakes if necessary. And lastly is the Interlocking System  which prevents signalman in a dangerous condition by giving signals using mechanical devices.
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