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  Freud" redirects here. For other uses, see Freud (disambiguation). Sigmund Freud Freud by Max Halberstadt, 1921 Born Sigismund Schlomo Freud May 1!Freiberg in M#hren, Mora$ia, %ustrian &m'ire(no *+bor , -ech e'ublic) Died 2/ Se'tember 19/9 (aged !/)Ham'stead, 0ondon,   Nationality %ustrian Fields  3eurology,  'sychology,  'sychothera'y,  'sychoanalysis Institutions ni$ersity o4 5ienna Alma mater ni$ersity o4 5ienna (M6, 1!!1) Academicadvisors • Fran- 7rentano • &rnst 7r8ce • arl laus Notableawards • :oethe ri-e (19/;) • Foreign Member o4 the oyalSociety <1= Spouse Martha 7ernays (m. 1!!>19/9, his  death) Signature   Sigmund Freud  (?4r ɔɪ d?@ <2=   :erman 'ronunciationA  < ˈ -i ː m ʊ nt ˈ 4 ʁɔʏ  t=@ born Sigismund Schlomo Freud @  May 1! > 2/ Se'tember 19/9) as an %ustrian neurologist, no non as the 4ather  o4  'sychoanalysis. Freud Buali4ied as a doctor o4 medicine at the ni$ersity o4 5ienna in 1!!1, </=  and then carried out research into cerebral 'alsy, a'hasia and microsco'ic neuroanatomy at the 5ienna :eneral Hos'ital. <C=  'on com'leting his habilitation in 1!!, he as a''ointed a docent  in neuro'athology and became an a44iliated 'ro4essor in 19;2. <= Dn creating 'sychoanalysis, a clinical method 4or treating  'sycho'athology through dialogue  beteen a 'atient and a 'sychoanalyst, <=  Freud de$elo'ed thera'eutic techniBues such as the use o4 4ree association and disco$ered trans4erence, establishing its central role in the analytic  'rocess. FreudEs rede4inition o4 sexuality to include its in4antile 4orms led him to 4ormulate the edi'us com'lex as the central tenet o4 'sychoanalytical theory. <G=  His analysis o4 dreams as ish4ul4illments 'ro$ided him ith models 4or the clinical analysis o4 sym'tom 4ormation and the mechanisms o4 re'ression as ell as 4or elaboration o4 his theory o4 the unconscious as an agency disru'ti$e o4 conscious states o4 mind. <!=  Freud 'ostulated the existence o4 libido, an energy ith hich mental 'rocesses and structures are in$ested and hich generates erotic attachments, and a death dri$e, the source o4 com'ulsi$e re'etition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. <9=  Dn his later or Freud de$elo'ed a ideranging inter'retation and critiBue o4 religion and culture.sychoanalysis remains in4luential ithin  'sychology,  'sychiatry, and  'sychothera'y, and across the humanities. %s such, it continues to generate extensi$e and highly contested debate ith regard to its thera'eutic e44icacy, its scienti4ic status, and hether it ad$ances or is detrimental to the 4eminist cause. <1;=   3onetheless, FreudEs or has su44used contem'orary Iestern thought and 'o'ular culture. Dn the ords o4 I. H. %udenEs 'oetic tribute, by the time o4 FreudEs death in 19/9, he had become "a hole climate o4 o'inion ? under hom e conduct our di44erent li$es". <11=
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